Lesions of the subthalamic nucleus

- are caused by the release of inhibition on the contralateral side.

- result in wild, flinging movements (e.g., hemiballismus).

- Use of benzodiazepines and increasing age decrease the duration of REM sleep.

C. Language

-Information is transferred between the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex through the corpus callosum.

- The right hemisphere is dominant in facial expression, intonation, body language, and spatial tasks.

- The left hemisphere is usually dominant with respect to language, even in left-handed people. Lesions of the left hemisphere cause aphasia.

1. Damage to Wernicke's area causes sensory aphasia, in which there is difficulty understanding written or spoken language.

2. Damage to Broca's area causes motor aphasia, in which speech and writing are affected, but understanding is intact.

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