Local metabolic control

- Blood flow in skeletal muscle exhibits autoregulation and active and reactive hyperemia.

- Demand for 02 in skeletal muscle varies with metabolic activity level, and blood flow is regulated to meet demand.

- During exercise, when demand is high, these local metabolic mechanisms are dominant.

- The local vasodilator substances are lactate, adenosine, and K+.

- Mechanical effects during exercise temporarily compress the arteries and decrease blood flow. During the postocclusion period, reactive hyperemia increases blood flow to repay the 02 debt.

F. Skin

- has extensive sympathetic innervation. Cutaneous blood flow is under extrinsic control.

- Temperature regulation is the principal function of the cutaneous sympathetic nerves. Increased ambient temperature leads to cutaneous vasodilation, allowing dissipation of excess body heat.

- Trauma produces the "triple response" in skin—a red line, a red flare, and a wheal. A wheal is local edema that results from the local release of histamine, which increases capillary filtration.

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