Pons

- Pneumotaxic center

Table 2-2. Prototypes of Drugs that Affect Autonomic Activity

Type of Receptor Adrenergic

Cholinergic

Nicotinic

Muscarinic

Agonist

Norepinephrine Phenylephrine

Clonidine

Norepinephrine

Isoproterenol

Dobutamine

Isoproterenol Albuterol

Nicotine

Carbachol

Muscarine Carbachol

Antagonist

Phenoxybenzamine

Phentolamine

Prazosin

Yohimbine

Propranolol Metoprolol

Propranolol Butoxamine

Curare

Hexamethonium (ganglion, but not neuromuscular junction)

Atropine

ACh = acetylcholine.

Table 2-3. Effect of the Autonomic Nervous System on Organ Systems

Organ

Heart

Vascular smooth muscle

Gastrointestinal tract

Bronchioles

Male sex organs Bladder

Sweat glands

Kidney Fat cells

Sympathetic Action

Î heart rate T contractility t AV node conduction

Constricts blood vessels in skin; splanchnic Dilates blood vessels in skeletal muscle i motility

Constricts sphincters

Dilates bronchiolar smooth muscle

Ejaculation

Relaxes bladder wall Constricts sphincter

T sweating

T renin secretion Î lipolysis

Sympathetic Receptor

Muscarinic (sympathetic cholinergic)

Parasympathetic Action

(receptors are muscarinic)

i heart rate I contractility (atria) 4- AV node conduction

T motility Relaxes sphincters

Constricts bronchiolar smooth muscle

Erection

Contracts bladder wall Relaxes sphincter

AV = atrioventricular.

3. Midbrain

- Micturition center

4. Hypothalamus

- Temperature regulation center

- Thirst and food intake regulatory centers

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