Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.
Since that time, impressive annual outbreaks in the USA and Canada in the late spring in each of four consecutive years (1995-1998) in association with imported raspberries have brought Cyclospora to increasing attention as a potential cause of significant diarrheal illnesses with prominent fatigue (Koumans et al., 1998 Herwaldt and Ackers, 1997 Herwaldt and Beach, 1999).
Although new, improved diagnostic methods are badly needed and are being developed, the diagnosis of cyclosporiasis is best made using direct acid-fast stain (or microwave-heated safranin staining) of fecal specimens (Long et al., 1990, 1991 Visvesvara et al., 1997). A major limitation is the difficulty detecting infectious oocysts in contaminated food or water in the concentration that are actually infectious for humans. Indeed, the most sensitive test at present may well be consumption by humans who, if not apparently immune, are susceptible to disease from subdetectable numbers of parasites. With the development of immunologic and gene probe reagents, we can expect the diagnosis of Cyclo-spora infections and contamination to improve considerably. PCR, with RFLP of amplification products, is able to identify as few as 10-25 oocysts of Eimeria tenella and Cyclospora caye-tanensis directly from raspberries (Jinneman et al., 1998).
The flavonoids, constituting one of the most numerous and widespread groups of natural plant constituents, are important to humans not only because they contribute to plant colors but also because many members are physiologically active. These low-molecular-weight substances, found in all vascular plants, are phenylbenzopyrones. Over 4000 structures have been identified in plant sources, and they are categorized into several groups (Fig. 1). Primarily recognized as pigments responsible for the autumnal burst of hues and the many shades of yellow, orange, and red in flowers and food, the flavonoids are found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, and leaves as well as tea and wine and are important constituents of the human diet (1). They are prominent components of citrus fruits and other food sources. Flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol) and flavones (apigenin and luteolin) are the most common phenolics in plant-based foods. Quercetin is also a predominant...
Human infection results from the accidental ingestion of infected snails, slugs and land planarians (worm-like creatures) found on unwashed vegetables, such as lettuce. The peak incidence of eosinophilic meningitis occurs in the cooler, rainy months between July and November, the period of highest consumption of lettuces and strawberries which when unwashed lead to infection. It is also the season when freshwater prawn may become infected from snails and slugs washed into rivers and estuaries. This was thought to be the main source of local, human infection in Tahiti. The infection is prevented by not eating unwashed vegetables and strawberries and uncooked snails, slugs and prawns infected with larvae. Efficient rat control will reduce the reservoir of infection.
Initial attempts to express Cry genes in transgenic plants were not particularly successful, and this was attributed to the bacterial origins of these genes and especially their high AT content, which resulted in low levels of insecticidal protein. Resynthesis of the Cry genes removing cryptic plant polyadenylation signals, putative messenger RNA (mRNA) destabilization signals, improving the codon usage bias, and increasing the GC content were strategies that increased expression to a useful level (0.2-0.3 of total soluble protein) in transgenic plants (4). Modified and unmodified, full-length and truncated Cry genes have so far been expressed in an array of plant species (from trees such as poplar, larch, and eucalypt cereals like wheat, maize, and rice legumes like chickpeas, soybeans, and peanuts vegetables such as potato, tomato, cabbage, broccoli, and sweet potato and fruits like apples and strawberries) (see references in Refs. 5-9), but intellectual property ownership has...
A major use of gibberellins is to increase the stalk length of seedless grapes. Because of the shortness of the individual fruit stalks, bunches of seedless grapes are too compact and the growth of the berries is restricted. Gib-berellin stimulates the stalks to grow longer, thereby allowing the grapes to grow larger by alleviating compaction, and it promotes elongation of the fruit (Figure 20.4).
Members of many species in the Carnivora exhibit intrasexual territoriality and maintain territories only with regard to members of their own sex (Powell 1979, 1994 Rogers 1977, 1987). These species exhibit large sexual dimorphism in body size and males of these species are polygynous (and females undoubtedly selectively polyandrous). Females raise young without help from males and the large body sizes of males may be considered a cost of reproduction (Seaman 1993). For species that affect food supplies mostly through resource depression (i.e., have rapidly renewing food resources such as ripening berries and nuts or prey on animals that become wary when they perceive a predator and later relax), intrasexual territoriality appears to have a minor cost compared to intersexual territoriality because the limiting resource renews. This cost may be imposed on females by males (Powell 1993a, 1994).
A third group of components are the dietary antioxidants. It is now apparent that most vegetables and grains contain antioxidants. Tomatoes contain the red pigment, lycopene. Green tea contains antioxidant polyphenols. Onions and garlic have large amounts of sulfur-containing chemicals that are strong antioxidants. Fruits, such as blueberries, strawberries and raspberries, are another rich source of antioxidants. It now appears that these plant antioxidants act to bolster the effectiveness of other members of the antioxidant network. The final component of the antioxidant defense network are
Rosales (nine families) in the APG circumscription (2003) are radically different from those of most previous systems (e.g. Cronquist, 1981). Among the important families are the rose family (Rosaceae), which include many ornamentals as well as fruit-bearing species, such as apples, cherries, peaches, plums, raspberries and strawberries. A few are also important timbers (e.g. cherry and white beam). Both Rosaceae and Rhamnaceae include a number of nitrogen-fixing genera, and the latter include a number of timber species as well as some minor fruit-bearing genera (e.g. jujube). Circumscription of the last set of families in Rosales is in flux, but these have long been recognized as a natural group. Relative to their limits as used in APG (2003), the marijuana and hops family (Cannabaceae) should now include the hop-hornbeam family (Celtidaceae), which has been split from Ulmaceae. The nettle family (Urticaceae) have a number of temperate herbs of minor importance and a larger number of...
A sampling of his inventions included musical instruments, roller-skate scooters, merry-go-rounds, model airplanes, and even a glider, which he tried to fly. As an early business venture, Skinner invented a flotation system that separated ripe elderberries from green ones so that he and a friend could sell the ripe berries door-to-door. In retrospect, these early inventions were an indication of Skinner's
The hawthorn berries, leaves, and flowers are popular starting materials for phytotherapeutic preparations indicated for mild heart insufficiency in Europe. In the United States, the status of hawthorn is undetermined (13). According to the European pharmacopoeia, berries are collected from two species Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Lindm.) and C. laevigata (Poir.) DC (syn. C. oxyacantha L.) or their hybrids. A minimum content of 1.0 pro-cyanidins is required. Leaves and flowers are collected from the two preceding species plus C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd., C. nigra Waldst. With so many accepted species, which have different chemical compositions, and different extraction procedures, it is necessary to standardize the products. Water, water-ethanol mixtures (30-70 ), and methanol (dry extracts) are used as extraction solvents and extract different active groups of compounds. Water is good extradant of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (di- to hexameric), and ethanol extracts polymeric...