Quality Stress Management Course

8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief

When you skillfully learn to handle your stress, not only does your stress level go down, but your quality of life goes up. The skills you will learn in the 8 Minute Meditation Stress Reduction Program have a global impact. Just think about it: If you lower your stress, you feel calmer. Your heart rate is normal, your digestive and other systems are working normally, the way they were designed to. Your entire body and mind are in harmony, functioning to give you the most aware, joyful experience you can have. There's nothing in the way. Then, the world may appear totally different. Colors may seem more vivid. Your shoulders seem lighter, like some great burden has been lifted from them. Life is just good again. Read more...

8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: 2 Ebooks, Guided Meditation Audio
Author: Victor Davich
Official Website: www.8minutes.org
Price: $15.99

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My 8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief Review

Highly Recommended

This is one of the best ebooks I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Example from the literature

In order to interpret the magnitude of the differences in QoL that were observed, stressful life events that produced an equivalent change in QoL scores were considered, and the responses to the Overall QoL scale were re-calibrated accordingly (see Chapter 16). Overall QoL scores shifted positively for captopril by 0.11 units, and negatively for enalapril by 0.11. Negative shifts of 0.11 corresponded to those encountered when there was major change in work responsibility , in-law troubles or mortgage foreclosure . On the basis of these investigations, a clinically important change was deemed to be one between 0.1 and 0.2.

Selfefficacy and health

Self-efficacy beliefs also may affect health by influencing how people respond to potentially stressful situations. When someone is faced with a threat real or imagined, psychological or physical the threat sets off an alarm in the person's brain, which reacts by preparing the body for defensive action. The pulse quickens, breathing deepens, the senses become sharper, and the muscles tense as the person prepares to fight or flee. In a real emergency, this physiological stress response can be a literal lifesaver. If the response continues over a long period of time, however, it can take a toll on the body, increasing the risk of depression, heart attack, stroke, various aches and pains, and perhaps even cancer. This kind of chronic stress can occur when people have trouble coping with long-term pressures, such as family conflicts, work or school demands, money problems, and the like.

Cutaneous viral infections

Research into the relationship between life stress and human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suggests that major psychosocial events are implicated in immune decrements in HPV infections and tendency to intraepithelial neoplasia (Pereira et al., 2003). Further studies on the stress management effects on psychological, endocrinological and immune functioning in men with HIV infection suggested that psychotherapy had measureable beneficial effects. A 10-week, group-based cognitive-behavioural stress-management intervention showed reductions in catecholamine urine output, urine cortisol output and beneficial changes in CD8 cytotoxic and CD4 lymphocytes (Hickie et al., 1999). Multifaceted cognitive-behavioural stress management reduced EBV capsid antigen and human herpesvirus six antibody titres in HIV-seropositive men compared to controls. This reduction was thought to be as a result of a more stable cellular immune system not suppressed by inflammatory...

Posttraumatic stress disorder

PTSD-related symptoms tend to be under-recognised in dermatology (Woodruff et al., 1997). The central clinical features of PTSD (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) include the persistent re-experience of extremely traumatic or stressful life experiences or life events, which can manifest as recurrent and intrusive thoughts, dreams, flashbacks or physical symptoms. There is a persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and this can manifest as dissociative symptoms.

The Role of Social Support in Adaptive Functioning Among African Americans with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities

African Americans with disabilities are at increased risk of stress and subsequently negative functional outcomes (Manton, Patrick, & Johnson, 1987 McNeil, 1993). Social support may play an important role in reducing stress and facilitating adaptive functioning among these individuals. Social support has been found to be a significant factor in overall adjustment to disability, as well as adjustment in specific areas including employment (Belgrave & Walker, 1991a & b Walker et al., 1995), mental

The Ethical And Scientific Background Of Community Care

Aspects of the large mental hospitals came to be seen as counter-therapeutic, in particular the application of what was essentially a factory system for dispensing care, whereby economies of scale were adopted without considering their adverse consequences for patients. Because so many of the normal, everyday functions of patients were taken over by the institutions, most patients spent long stretches of time doing absolutely nothing. The ill effects of this were apparent, and led to the introduction of new techniques occupational therapy from 1927 in Burgholzli in Switzerland, and industrial therapy somewhat later. These in turn increased awareness of the deleterious effects of institutions, and resulted in polemics against the asylum 7, 8 . It was argued that institutions were abnormal environments, that abnormal environments induced behavioural abnormalities in the people who lived in them, and that the most extreme behaviour would be seen in the most abnormal environments....

Coping and adjustment

Report less relationship satisfaction and experience more stressful life events (Whiffen & Gotlib, 1989). Coping with the complexities of skin disease can thus test the commitment two people have towards one another by challenging both partners to work within new parameters. To consider couple relationships as merely providing beneficial support is overly simplistic (Schmaling & Sher, 2000). Couples also maintain loving relationships in order to meet the need for companionship and attachment.

Impact Of Travel On Relationships

The negative effects of travelling on the nontravelling partner and family members also have a significant impact on the level of stress experienced by the passenger. Air travellers should be encouraged to develop strategies for managing their relationships with those close to them, particularly relating to explicit communication regarding the trip and the effect it has for all parties. Passengers should also be encouraged to be creative about using the trip as a way to enhance their relationships, such as providing opportunities to express feelings and to explore individual goals of family members. Strategies for managing stress in relationships also include placing the trip in the context of family life by ensuring sufficient warning is given and the reason for the journey is clear (Persaud, 1999). Stress associated with travel may produce negative consequences socially, psychologically and physically these can often depend on the individual's ability to 'buffer' stress. Passengers...

Structural durability

A shoulder is to be used, the junction between the base of the axial wall and the gingival margin of the preparation should be rounded to minimise stress in this area. Rounding of the reduced cusps, near parallel preparations and multiple point contacts on the final occlusion also reduce stress.

Sources for Further Study

Behavior and Medicine. 3d ed. Seattle Hogrefe & Huber, 2001. This large volume covers an extensive area of behavior and medicine, which include stress and various behaviors which may affect physiological health. The articles cover such behavioral issues as substance abuse, stress management, pain, placebos, AIDS, cardiovascular risk, and adherence to medical regimens. Other behavioral issues are covered which relate to love and work, as well as developmental issues from infancy to death, dying and grief. The book is readable and includes illustrations, bibliographies, summaries, and study questions at the end of each article.

Psychological Training and Preparation

As part of stress management training, expatriates should be given information about the importance of taking sufficient time to rest and relax. Excessive working hours contribute to the difficulties that can cause premature return (Lovell, 1999a). Couples and families benefit from scheduling sufficient quality time together. Discussing how to create and maintain a strong social support network can also take place at the preparation stage. tions may be more harmful psychologically than shortlived traumatic events, as they can be a cause of chronic stress. Training in problem-solving skills, negotiation techniques and conflict resolution can help to reduce stress.

Evidence for the Validity of Screening

Peppiatt and Byass (1991) looked at the health of 212 returning missionaries serving in 27 countries for 488 person-years 6.5 of adults had a raised eosinophil count, but only 13 out of 157 had cysts of pathogenic organisms on stool test, lower than in many reported studies. Self-reporting from overseas showed malaria, diarrhea and giardia infection to be the most common perceived illnesses, but psychiatric illness accounted for nearly 110 episodes per 1000 person years, underlining the need for careful assessment and stress management seminars before leaving, and appropriate debriefing and counseling on return.

Compare Alexithymia And Coping Style Between People With Ms And Other People

Picardi, A., Pasquini, P., Cattaruzza, M.S., Gaetano, P., Melchi, C.F., Baliva, G., Camaioni, D., Tiago, A., Abeni, D., & Biondi, M. (2003b). Stressful life events, social support, attachment security and alexithymia in vitiligo. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 73, 150-158.

Physiological Evidence of the Disease Process in the Brain

Psychiatric Rehabilitation

Summarizing all available evidence on the etiology of schizophrenia, Walker, Kestler, Bollini, and Hochman (2004) reached the conclusion that both genetic and prenatal factors can influence vulnerability to this illness. The same can be said for mental illnesses in general. Subsequent processes, including brain development, that occur during adolescence and exposure to stressful events can trigger the onset of what is known as a major mental illness.

The Stress VulnerabilityCoping Competence Model

Fortunately, a number of protective factors can either prevent the onset of an acute episode of illness or lessen the impact of symptoms. These factors include coping skills, supportive resources, competence in relevant life activities, and psychotropic medications. According to this model, the severity and outcome of these disorders have a lot to do with whether or not these protective factors are in place when a stressful event occurs. If an individual does not have adequate coping skills or does not acquire resources or supports that enhance coping, he or she remains very vulnerable to the influence of future stressors and more vulnerable to frequent or prolonged relapses. Conversely, a person with well-developed coping skills and a reliable support system is likely to experience fewer acute episodes of mental illness, as well as episodes that are less severe and shorter in duration. Consider the following vignette

Dissociative Identity Disorder DSM code 30014

There exist a limited number of research studies that seek to explain the causes of dissociation in certain individuals and predict what persons are vulnerable to the development of dissociative amnesia or fugue during periods of trauma or overwhelming stress. The psychodynamic explanation emphasizes the use of repression as a defense against conscious awareness of the stressful or traumatic event. Entire chunks of the person's identity or past experiences are split from the conscious mind as a way to avoid painful memories or conflicts. According to this explanation, some individuals are vulnerable to the use of dissociation because of their early childhood experiences of trauma or abuse. With the early experience of abuse, the child learns to repress the memories or engage in a process of self-hypnosis. The hypnotic state permits the child to escape the stress associated with the abuse or neglect. The abused child feels a sense of powerlessness in the face of repeated abuse and...

The Case against the Linear Continuum Approach

Joanna's story illustrates a number of reasons why the linear continuum approach to residential treatment has been criticized in recent years. One inherent flaw in this approach is the requirement that consumers make frequent changes in their living situation. For most people, moving from one home to another is a stressful event. It means abandoning routines and settings that have become comfortable and getting used to a whole new place. Such changes are often hard to deal with for people without psychiatric disabilities. For people who have a severe mental illness, the stress involved with such a change can create real problems. Think back to what you learned in Chapter 2. Mental illness is episodic in nature and stressful life events can exacerbate symptoms. Considering these facts, mental health professionals should not be surprised when people like Joanna end up back in the hospital just as they are about to make a major life transition. In this sense the linear continuum model...

The History of the Self Help Movement

Over the years, Recovery Inc. has grown into an international organization totally run by its members. In meetings, members share examples of everyday life situations where they have applied Recovery Inc. principles. They share their stories in four steps. In the first step the members summarize situations that trigger emotional distress. In the second step members specify symptoms that they experienced. The third step involves relabeling diagnoses, symptoms, and stressful situations using Recovery Inc. terminology. For example, a person diagnosed with bipolar disorder might stop referring to himself as a manic-depressive and instead say, I am an average nervous person. This part of the process helps members to cognitively reframe symptoms and situations that they previously experienced as devastating into manageable aspects of their day-to-day functioning. The last step involves members speculating on how they would have handled the situation before they learned self-help techniques...

Psychosomatic Disorders

Psychosomatic disorders are physical disorders produced by psychological factors such as stress, mental states, or personality characteristics. A variety of psychological or psychotherapeutic interventions have been developed to alter the individual's ability to cope with stressful situations and to change the personality or behavior of the individ-

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing CISD

There are numerous forms of psychological debriefing, some with a focus on psychoeducation and others focused on catharsis. The most well-developed, researched, and widely used form of psychological debriefing was developed by Mitchell and Everly (2000) and is called critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). According to Litz and Gray (2004), CISD is so popular that the American Red Cross mandates its use when services are offered on the ground. Critical incident stress debriefing is considered only one component, however, of a larger systematic prevention program for emergency workers and personnel called critical incident stress management (CISM). Critical incident stress management includes CISD but also involves the prebriefing or psychological preparation before entering dangerous work, consultation, and longer-term facilitation of treatment and crisis management. Mitchell and Everly (2000) identify three main categories of CISM (1) interventions for the individual (e.g.,...

Other Social Programs

Among individual characteristics, poverty is one of the strongest predictors of preterm birth (see Chapter 4). Poverty is a complex problem that can be influenced directly by income support programs for low-income people, such as the TANF program, or indirectly through mechanisms such as minimum wage policies housing policies the Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children and educational policies. Little evidence that directly links specific policies to a reduced rate of premature birth is currently available, however. Poor women are also at risk of more stressful life events and more chronic stress (Lu, 2005 Peacock, 2005).

Alternative Medicine and Female Infertility

Other than its potential central role in affecting hypothalamic pituitary ovarian function and peripheral role in improving uterine blood flow and implantation function, acupuncture has been definitively shown to reduce stress and anxiety through its sympatho-inhibitory property. Undoubtedly, infertility is stress inducing and anxiety provoking. The use of acupuncture to reduce stress is a very viable option when couples undergo the stringent process of evaluation and treatment of infertility. Compared to the conventional administration of antidepressants and anxiolytic drugs, side effects of which are largely unknown on the outcome of infertility treatment, acupuncture presents a relatively benign and simple alternative.

Attributional Style Questionnaire

Subjects involved in testing are told to imagine themselves in the situations and to determine what they believe would be the major cause of the situation if it were to happen to them. After subjects complete the test, their performance is rated according to stability versus instability, globality versus specificity, and externality versus internality. An example of stable, global, internal perceptions would be a feeling of stupidity for one's failure an unstable, specific, and external perception might consider luck to be the cause of the same situation. The questionnaire has been used by some industries and corporations to identify people who may not be appropriate for certain positions requiring assertiveness and a well-developed ability to handle stress. The same questionnaire has also been used to identify individuals who may be at high risk for developing psychosomatic disorders so that early intervention can be implemented.

Stress and dermatology

Indeed, there has been considerable research that has investigated the role of emotional upsets antecedent to eruptions of skin disease with a number of conditions and consensus has suggested an association between stressful life events and the onset of skin conditions (Greismar, 1978 Invernizzi et al., 1988 Harper, 1992 Al'Abadie et al., 1994 Liu et al., 1996 Papadopoulos et al., 1998).

Psychosocial impact of skin diseases

As well as affecting psychosocial functioning, negative psychosocial experiences may also affect the onset and progression of cutaneous conditions. Clinical observations have suggested that stress often precedes the onset or exacerbation of many dermatological conditions that share both psychosomatic and immunological components, such as vitiligo, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (Koblenzer, 1983 Al-Abadie et al., 1994). For example, emotional distress and stressful life events have been suggested as contributory factors in the onset of vitiligo (Papadopoulos et al., 1998).

Use of Date of Last Menstrual Period

To more than 25 days) can be due to variations in the timing of menstrual cycles, ovulation, and implantation of the blastocyst. Changes in age, levels of physical activity, body mass index (BMI), nutrition, breast-feeding, interpregnancy interval, smoking, alcohol consumption, and stressful life events can influence the length of an individual woman's menstrual cycle, and can therefore influence accuracy of LMP in estimating the duration of a pregnancy (Kato et al., 1999 Liu et al., 2004 Munster et al., 1992 Rowland et al., 2002).

The impact of skin conditions on selfesteem

Older children, particularly young adolescents, can also use some of the stress management techniques and cognitive-behavioural therapy techniques used for adults (Stangier & Ehlers, 2000). Some of the habit reversal techniques that have been found to be useful for adults can be applied to children, but they do need some adaptation to make them useful and may not be so successful since they rely on high levels of motivation (Bridgett et al., 1996).

Control and Helplessness

Locus of control refers to the location where one believes control over life events originates. An external locus of control is outside oneself an internal locus of control is within oneself. The individual who perceives that life events are the result of luck, or are determined by others, is assuming an external locus of control. The belief that one's efforts and actions control one's own destiny reflects an internal locus of control. Internalizers are thought to be more likely to assume responsibility for initiating necessary lifestyle changes, to employ direct coping mechanisms when confronted with stressful situations, and to be more optimistic about the possibility of successfully instituting changes that are needed. This last characteristic is sometimes called self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to the belief that one is able to do what is needed and attain the intended effect.

Adaptive and Maladaptive Functions

Cannot be coped with effectively can have severe negative consequences. Work by pioneering stress researchers such as Hans Selye brought attention to the physiological changes produced by exposure to chronic stress, which contribute to diseases such as peptic ulcers, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disorders. Subsequent research by psychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe and their colleagues indicated that exposure to a relatively large number of stressful life events is associated with the onset of other diseases, such as cancer and psychiatric disorders, which are less directly a function of arousal in specific physiological systems.

Social Support Among African Americans

Dressler, Dos-Santos, and Primavera (1986) examined the impact of social support on stress and depression using a sample of 122 African American households from a rural southern setting. They were interested in determining whether or not support network could act as a buffer against stress related to depression. The results of the study showed a buffering effect of social support on stress for males, but not for females. Brown and Gary (1987) studied the impact of stress and social support on health using an urban African American sample. They were interested in determining whether the social support relationship varied for psychological and physical health. Psychological health was measured using a depression scale, and physical health was assessed with a single question asking subjects to rate their health as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Stress was measured using Holmes and Rahe's inventory of stressful life events. Social support was assessed by looking at the structure of the...

Psychosocial and Alternative Models

The meaning of information is constructed in a narrative process or stories that we tell ourselves to others, as well as to ourselves (Meichenbaum & Fitzpatrick, 1993, p. 707). Narrative psychology is the study of such stories. We make sense and meaning of the world in terms of such stories. Victor Frankl was a famous psychologist and survivor of a Nazi concentration camp in World War II. In his book Man's Search for Meaning, Frankl spoke of the importance of finding meaning in life as crucial to both physical and psychological survival, but implicit in his work was the idea that meaning could be derived almost despite the adverse circumstances in which one finds himself. Meichenbaum and Fitzpatrick (1993) proposed that meaning making through narrative often occurs in response to disruptions in a person's routine and when reacting or adjustment is necessary, especially when their physical or psychological well-being is judged to be at stake (p. 708). Stressful events or traumatic...

Background and History

Background and history information relevant to a trauma history can be ascertained in any number of ways, ranging from structured clinical interviews, questionnaires, nonstructured clinical interviews, and standardized self-report measures. Norris and Hamblen (2004) reviewed seven quality self-report measures designed to ascertain the presence of qualified traumatic events in a patient's history. Two standout instruments are both questionnaires the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ), developed by Edward Kubany et al. (2000) and the Stressful Life Events Questionnaire (SLESQ), developed by Goodman, Corcoran, Turner, Yuan, and Green (1998). The TLEQ assesses the occurrence of 23 traumatic events (e.g., natural disasters, motor vehicle accidents, or combat), is useful for both research and clinical practice, is clinician-administered, and has good psychometric properties. It is a comprehensive questionnaire covering a wide range of traumatic events. The SLESQ is a self-report...

Emotions in cognitive therapy

A second function served by the patient's expression of emotions during cognitive therapy sessions is stress relief, in that many people feel compelled to hide or suppress their feelings in the workplace or around family members. Beck notes that Uninhibited crying seems to have some intrinsic therapeutic merit in many cases. . . . the patient has a sanctuary for self-expression without being judged. Beck adds that patients who find that they feel better after crying or expressing anger in the therapist's office are also more likely to stay in therapy.


Because amnesia does not typically interfere with a person's daily functioning, few specific complaints about the lack of memory take place. Individuals may complain about other psychological symptoms but not the amnesia. Consequently, treatment often does not focus on the lost memories. Some of the associated symptoms that occur with amnesia include depression and stress due to a fugue state. Treatment is often directed toward alleviating the depression and teaching a person stress management techniques.


Working memory buffers in PFC do not simply hold memory information transiently but rather work with memories to guide action in a dynamic fashion according to internal and external stimuli. In conditions where highly important stimuli are encountered, PFC networks may establish a limited number of goal states perhaps via predominant activation of D1 receptors, at the expense of all competing information and goal states. In less stressful situations, PFC networks may deal flexibly with mnemonic information to guide forthcoming actions in manner that is less dire and more exploratory, perhaps via predominant activation of D2 receptors. The goal of future research will be to determine what types of stimuli and DA release events activate D1 versus D2 classes of DA receptors in PFC, and whether this varies on an individual or context dependent basis. Such information may provide a novel way to look at working memory processes in the PFC under normal and pathological conditions.


The empirical research on stress and preterm delivery has become increasingly sophisticated in the past decade in several ways. First, the designs of observational studies have shifted from predominantly retrospective to predominantly prospective, measuring stress before rather than after delivery. Second, sample sizes are larger, in general, affording better power to test the effect(s) of interest. Third, the means of both the conceptualization and the measurement of stress have been strengthened. Fourth, most researchers now analyze data with attention to separating preterm labor and delivery from infant birth weight rather than studying only one of these outcomes without controlling for the other or lumping together several outcomes into what was sometimes termed complications. Finally, studies have involved greater control for potential confounders of the stress-preterm birth relationship. Thus, the methodological problems that have plagued past research on stress and preterm...

Race and Ethnicity

Daily lives than white women, it has been suggested that maternal stress may contribute to the disparities in preterm birth rates between African-American and white women (James, 1993). For example, Lu and Chen (2004) reported that African-American women were significantly more likely to experience stressful life events (e.g., to lose her job or to become separated or divorced) just before or during pregnancy than non-Hispanic white women. As discussed in Chapter 3, African-American women are also more likely to experience racism, which can be conceptualized as an additional source of stress (Krieger, 2000). Socioeconomically disadvantaged women experience more stressful life events and more chronic stress (Lu et al., 2005 Peacock et al., 1995). Poverty is associated with poor and crowded housing, living without a partner, unsatisfying marital relationships, violence from an intimate partner, and stressful working conditions. Unintended pregnancies are far more common among...


(1) changes in dietary practices with increased fruits and vegetables, decreased carbohydrates and charbroiled meat, (2) caloric restriction obesity control, (3) increased physical activity and stress reduction, and (4) early detection of precancerous lesions. A pharmacologic, medically oriented, translational science strategy includes (1) identification of individuals at risk using clinical, histologic, genetic and proteomic profiles,

Passenger Behaviour

Particularly where individual space is compromised. This is especially relevant among air passengers who are likely to come into close contact with people from other cultures. Passengers are required to respond flexibly to the interpersonal dynamics of heterogeneous groups and to manage differences in communication. When passengers have a reduced capacity to cope, due to a lack of skills, knowledge, empathy or high levels of stress, their behaviour can inadvertently exacerbate their own stress. This may lead to anxious and fractious relationships with others. Many passengers resort to using alcohol in order to cope with boredom and stress. The overuse of alcohol to manage stress has been linked in some cases to so-called 'air rage'.

The Role of Stress

Even though Freud demonstrated the role of psychological factors in illness, the medical field has still focused upon the biological roots ofillness and has still largely rejected or ignored the role of emotions and personality. Nevertheless, the ascending line of thought can be described as a biopsychosocial view of illness, which begins with the basic assumption that health and illness result from an interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors. This view provides a conceptual framework for incorporating human elements into the scientific paradigm. A man who suffers a heart attack at age thirty-five is not conceptualized simply as a person who is experiencing the effects of cellular damage caused by purely biological processes that are best treated by surgery or the administration of drugs. The victim, instead, is viewed as a person who also has engaged in practices that adversely affected his health. In addition to drugs and surgery, therefore, treatment for this man...

Personality Types

Continuing the tradition of the early Greek and Roman physicians, modern personality theorists have often noted that certain personality characteristics seem to be associated with a propensity to develop illness, or even specific illnesses. Other personality characteristics appear to reduce vulnerability to illness. One of the best-known examples of a case in which personality characteristics affect health is that of the Type A behavior pattern (or Type A personality). The person identified as a Type A personality typically displays a pattern of behaviors which includes easily aroused hostility, excessive competitiveness, and a pronounced sense of time urgency. Research suggests that hostility is the most damaging of these behaviors. Type A personalities typically display hyperreactivity to stressful situations, with a corresponding slow return to the baseline of arousal. The hostile Type A personality is particularly prone to coronary heart disease. By contrast, the less driven Type...


Because the hyperreactivity of the Type A behavior pattern is thought to be at least partially genetically based, there are probably some limits on what can be done to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease resulting from physiological hyperreactivity. There is, however, much that can be done in other areas. Persons who are prone to such disorders can be taught to exercise properly, eliminate unhealthy dietary practices, and reduce or quit smoking. Of particular interest to psychologists is the opportunity to help these individuals by teaching effective coping strategies, stress management, values training, behavior modification to control Type A behaviors, and cognitive control of depression and other negative emotions. Studies by psychologists have demonstrated a wide range of interventions that can be helpful in reducing the danger of cardiovascular disease in Type A personalities. Exercise produces positive effects on physiological functioning, appears to improve general...

Care Of The Staff

Cardiac arrests, particularly on wards where they happen infrequently, can have implications for staff. It is essential that those involved with these extremely stressful situations are given the opportunity for discussion afterwards. They may find it useful to talk through the event and to have questions and concerns

Trait anxiety

The term stress is used to designate how human beings respond when they confront circumstances that they appraise as dangerous or threatening and that tax their coping capability. Stressful events (stressors) elicit a wide range of responses in humans. They not only bring about immediate physiological changes but also affect one's emotional state, the use of one's intellectual abilities and one's efficiency at solving problems, and one's social behavior. When experiencing stress, people take steps to do something about the stressors eliciting the stress and to manage the emotional upset they are producing. These maneuvers are called coping responses. Coping is a key concept in the study of the stress process. Stress-management intervention techniques are designed to teach people the appropriate ways to cope with the stressors that they encounter in their everyday lives.

DSM code 29689

A diathesis-stress model can also account for some of the recurrent episodes of mania in bipolar disorder. Investigators suggest that positive life events, such as the birth of a baby or ajob promotion, as well as negative life events, such as divorce or the loss of ajob, may trigger the onset of episodes in individuals with bipolar disorder. Stressful life events and the social rhythm disruptions that they cause can have adverse effects on a person's circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are normal biologic rhythms that govern such functions as sleeping and waking, body temperature, and oxygen consumption. Circadian rhythms affect hormonal levels and have significant effects on both emotional and physical well-being. For those reasons, many clinicians encourage individuals with bipolar disorder to work toward maintaining consistency in their social rhythms.

Organic Theories

Organic theories of schizophrenia are influenced by the knowledge that conditions known to have organic causes (that is, causes stemming from biological abnormalities) often produce psychological symptoms that mimic the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Among these are viral encephalitis, vitamin-deficiency diseases, temporal-lobe epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disease such as Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease. In contradistinction to historical theories of schizophrenia that have little empirical support, considerable research supports the operation of genetic factors in schizophrenia. Such factors are most often assumed to influence the development of the brain and its resilience to a variety of physiological and psychological stressors. In the diathesis-stress model, such a genetic defect is necessary for the development of chronic schizophrenia but is not sufficient to produce it stressful life events must also be present. The genetic abnormality then leaves the person...

Later years

During this stressful time, Horney's relationship with Erich Fromm had been deteriorating as well. Self Analysis, her work advocating that neurotic people could aid in their own therapy, was published in 1942. It received lukewarm reviews at best from the psychoanalytic community, and for the most part, was completely ignored. Fromm, too, had published a book the previous year the landmark Escape From Freedom, which had been far better received. A summer vacation at Monhegan the previous year proved to be their last as a couple. It was Fromm that left the relationship, but it is believed that their breakup was mostly related to her jealousy over the recognition his book received. The fact that he continued to teach at the New York Institute after the institute's treatment of her and that Fromm, too, was a highly popular teacher, apparently added to her resentment. Always the survivor, Horney threw herself into her work. Her private practice was thriving, and she remained actively...

Etiology Summary

Summarizing all available evidence on the etiology of schizophrenia, Walker et al. (2004) reached the conclusion that both genetic (inherited) and prenatal (before birth) factors can give rise to a vulnerability to schizophrenia. The subsequent processes, which affect the development of neurons in the brain, especially those that occur during adolescence and exposure to stressful events, can trigger the behavioral expression of this vulnerability. Walker and colleagues point out that the etiology of schizophrenia involves the interaction among vulnerabilities within the brain and environmental factors. The illness does not emerge from a single defect in a specific brain region but rather from the dysfunction of neuronal circuits in multiple brain regions. The brain's maturational processes play a critical role.

Reaction to Stress

Cannon was among the first scientists to describe how people respond to stressful circumstances. When faced with a threat, one's How an individual cognitively appraises an event is the most important determinant of whether that event will be perceived as stressful by that person. Psychologist Richard Lazarus has delineated three important cognitive mechanisms (primary appraisals, secondary appraisals, and coping strategies) that determine perceptions of stressfulness and how people alter appraisals. Primary appraisal refers to an assessment of whether a situation is neutral, challenging, or potentially harmful. When a situation is judged to be harmful or threatening, a secondary appraisal is made of the coping options or maneuvers that the individual has at his or her disposal. Actual coping strategies that may be used are problem focused (those that involve altering the circumstances that are eliciting the stress response) or emotion focused (those that involve...


Main points The centerpiece of social-cognitive theory is self-efficacy. Bandura defines perceived self-efficacy as people's beliefs about their capability to produce desired results through their own actions. According to Bandura, people with a high sense of self-efficacy approach difficult tasks as challenges to be met, rather than threats to be avoided. They also set challenging goals for themselves, and they maintain a strong commitment to achieving them. When faced with a setback, they quickly recover their confidence and simply redouble their efforts. Bandura states that this type of outlook leads to personal successes while reducing stress and decreasing the risk of depression.

Stress and Control

Altering people's perception of control and predictability can also help them adjust to transitory stressful situations. Studies by psychologists Stephen Auerbach, Suzanne Miller, and others have shown that for people who prefer to deal with stress in active ways (rather than by avoiding the source of stress), adjustment to stressful surgical procedures and diagnostic examinations can be improved if they are provided with detailed information about the impending procedure. It is likely that the information enhances their sense of predictability and control in an otherwise minimally controllable situation. Others, who prefer to control their stress by blunting the stressor, show better adjustment when they are not given detailed information.

Stress Inoculation

It prepares patients to deal with stress-inducing events by teaching them to use coping skills at low levels of the stressful situation and then gradually to cope with more and more stressful situations. Stress inoculation training involves three phases conceptualization, skills acquisition and rehearsal, and application and follow-through. In the conceptualization phase of stress inoculation training, patients are given an adaptive way of viewing and understanding their negative reactions to stressful events. In the skills-acquisition and rehearsal phase, patients learn coping skills appropriate to the type of stress they are experiencing. With interpersonal anxiety, a patient might develop skills that would make the feared situation less threatening (for example, learning to initiate and maintain conversations). The patient might also learn deep muscle relaxation to lessen tension. In cases of anger, patients learn to view potential provocations as problems that require a solution...

Further Analysis

Initially, the procedure was created as a litmus test for secure attachment of one-year-olds. The goal was two-fold first, the test would observe a child's exploratory behaviors with the new toys in an unfamiliar environment secondly, it would assess the nature of attachment the child was thought to have to his mother based on his reactions to a stressful situation (i.e., being separated from his mother).

Anxiety and Phobias

The recently developed two-dimensional circumplex model (see the figure Circumplex Model ) has been adopted as a model for illustrating how emotion relates to stress. The activation-deactivation dimension of the circumplex relates to how much the emotion invokes a sense of alertness, energy, and mobilization, in contrast to the deactivation end of the continuum that connotes drowsiness and lethargy. The second dimension of the circumplex relates to the degree of pleasantness unpleasantness associated with the emotion. For example, perceived stress and anxiety relate to unpleasant activation. In contrast, serenity is associated with deactivation and positive affect. Richard Lazarus has argued that the relational meaning of a stressful event determines the particular emotion associated with the event. For example, the relational meaning of anger is a demeaning offense against me and mine. The relational meaning of anxiety is facing an uncertain or existential threat. The relational...

Amplification Method

The amplification method can be applied to a dream reported by a graduate student in clinical psychology. While preparing to defend his dissertation, the final and most anxiety-provoking aspect of receiving the doctorate, the student had a dream about his oral defense. Before presenting the project to his dissertation committee that was to evaluate its worth (and seemingly his own), the student dreamed that he was in the bathroom gathering his resources. He noticed he was wearing a three-piece brown suit however, none of the pieces matched. They were different shades of brown. Fortunately, the pieces were reversible, so the student attempted to change them so they would all be the same shade. After repeated attempts he was unable to get all three pieces of the suit to be the same shade of brown. He finally gave up in despair and did not appear for his defense. With a little knowledge about the student, an analytical therapist would have an easy time with the meaning of this dream....

Adjustment Disorders

Adjustment disorders have been defined in the ICD-10 as states of subjective distress and emotional disturbance, usually interfering with social functioning and performance, and arising in the period of adaptation to a significant life change or to the consequences of a stressful life event (including the presence or possibility of serious physical illness). The stressor may have involved the individual or his community.

Benefits of Control

Janis's investigation was particularly influential because it drew attention to the question of how psychologists can work with people to help them cope with impending stressful events, especially those (such as surgery) that they are committed to confronting and over which they have little control. Research by Judith Rodin and others has shown that interventions designed to increase the predictability of and perceived control over a stressful event can have dramatic effects on stress and health. In one control-enhancing intervention study, nursing home residents were told by the hospital administrator to take responsibility for themselves, were asked to decide what activities in which to participate, and were told what decisions for which they were responsible. Patients who received the control-enhancing intervention reported being happier in the nursing home, and the death rate was half of that among nursing home residents who were told that it was the staff's responsibility to care...

Rational Therapies

Proach it was introduced in the early 1960's. Ellis proposed that many people are made unhappy by their faulty, irrational beliefs, which influence the way they interpret events. The therapist will interact with the patient, attempting to direct him or her to more positive and realistic views. Cognitive therapy, pioneered by Aaron T. Beck, has been applied to such problems as depression and stress. For stress reduction, ideas and thoughts that are producing stress in the patient will be questioned the therapist will get the patient to examine the validity of these thoughts. Thought processes can then be restructured so the situations seem less stressful. Cognitive therapy has been found to be quite effective in treating depression, as compared to other therapeutic methods. Beck held that depression is caused by certain types of negative thoughts, such as devaluing the self or viewing the future in a consistently pessimistic way.


After considerable research on the topic, Seligman and others correlated this learned helplessness and depression. It seemed to Seligman that when humans, or other animals, feel unable to extricate themselves from a highly stressful situation, they perceive the idea of relief to be hopeless and they give up. The belief that they cannot affect the outcome of events no matter what force they exert on their environment seems to create an attitude of defeat. Actual failure eventually follows, thereby reinforcing that belief. It seems that the reality of the situation is not the crucial factor What matters is the perception that the situation is hopeless.

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