Sexually transmitted infections (STI) include a broad category of bacterial, viral, protozoan, and fungal infections and ectoparasitic infestations. For three of these bacterial infections, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, there is substantive evidence that screening and treatment in correctional settings could play a critical role in their control. We will describe the epidemiology of these infections, the appropriate populations to target for screening, methods to increase treatment of identified infections, evidence of the impact of detention screening in controlling them, and the cost-effectiveness of detention screening. Correctional settings might also play a critical role in controlling HIV, another STI, among some populations, as discussed in Chapter 8.
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