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During 2006, a vaccine for the human papillomavirus (HPV) types most commonly associated with cervical cancer and genital warts was introduced for women (Saslow et al., 2007). It remains to be seen whether recommen dations will be developed to vaccinate young women in youth detention, as there are recommendations for vaccination of adolescents for other infections in this setting.

As cities, such as New York City, expand corrections screening, there needs to be evaluation of the impact of these massive screening efforts. There should be evaluations of the best methods to increase treatment of persons screened in corrections, because screening without treatment has little impact. Modeling the expected prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis detected in corrections based on local disease rates, could provide guidance to local programs about which populations to prioritize and allocate resources for. Because STI disparities are greatest in the southeastern United States, and this is the region with the highest burden of incarceration, it would be useful to model the potential STI burden among incarcerated persons in this region and the impact screening and treatment in corrections could have on regional STI rates. In addition, modeling could suggest how comprehensive screening must be in order to have an impact. In these times of shrinking resources, we must use our limited funds as effectively as possible. Modeling could provide insight into the most effective use of public health and correctional health resources to improve the health of the community.

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