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X-ray scans (including pictures) using a mobile C-arm unit (e.g. in the operating theatre) £ ^ ^ ,x - Surgeon, examining doctor, assistant f -*

(e.g. anaesthetist, nursing staff)

-Pa and pa, (Pj) -Pa,(Pj)

4 When using X-rays in medicine, the only differentiation is between picture machines and scanning machines. Scanning machines also include machines where the scan can be supplemented by pictures without changing the ray direction.

4 When using X-rays in medicine, the only differentiation is between picture machines and scanning machines. Scanning machines also include machines where the scan can be supplemented by pictures without changing the ray direction.

radiation exposure for the persons present in the control area (O Fig. 4.8).

In this context it is worth mentioning that together with the tolerable annual limit value for the effective dose, limit values have also been stipulated for persons with occupational exposure to radiation for organs or areas of the body »iris, skin, hands, lower arms, feet and ankles«, and compliance with these limit values must be safeguarded by corresponding protection measures. In addition, § 31b of the X-ray Ordinance stipulates a limit value for the effective dose measured in all calendar years (occupational life dose) for persons with occupational exposure to radiation as 400 mSv. If this limit value is exceeded, the supervisory authorities can permit that the effective dose in subsequent years does not exceed 10 mSv per calendar year.

Persons with occupational exposure to radiation are allocated to category A or B depending on the expected radiation exposure. Persons in category A must undergo a check-up by an »authorised doctor« (occupational health check-up) within 1 year before starting to work in the control area. The doctor must ascertain whether there are any health concerns against working in the control area. For persons in category B, the supervisory authorities can stipulate that this kind of check-up takes place before starting to work in the control area. If the check-up shows that there are no health concerns to working in the control area, the »authorised doctor« issues a corresponding certificate which has to be submitted to the radiation protection manager.

The main difference between the two categories consists in the fact that persons with occupational radiation exposure in category A have to be examined by an »au-thorised doctor« regularly every year. Such regular check ups are not prescribed for persons with occupational radiation exposure in category B.

If the information from the official personal dosimeter evaluated every month shows that the limit value of 6 mSv for the annual effective dose has been exceeded in a person with occupational radiation exposure in category B, then this person must be allocated to category A of persons with occupational radiation exposure, and then has to undergo regular yearly check-ups by an »authorised doctor«, as described above. Persons subject to monitoring by an »authorised doctor« must tolerate the necessary medical check-ups.

In the case of female operating staff, it must be noted that

4 in women capable of bearing children, the body dose at the womb accumulated over 1 month must not exceed 2 mSv (§ 31a of the X-ray Ordinance) and

4 the working conditions for pregnant women must be organised in such a way that the equivalent dose to which the unborn child is exposed is kept as low as reasonably possible and the dose probably does not exceed 1 mSv during the remainder of the pregnancy. In compliance with these marginal conditions, pregnant women are not prohibited from working in the control area.

Outside staff. The new X-ray Ordinance now also contains occupational safety regulations for employees working for example as anaesthetist in another hospital or in doctor's surgeries when using surgical image intensifiers in the operating suite, without belonging to the regular staff there. The supervisory authorities must be informed of the activities of these persons according to § 6 Para. 1 No. 3

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