Various positions 280

21.1.1 Supine position - 280

21.1.2 Prone position - 282

21.1.3 Lateral position - 284

21.1.4 Lithotomy position - 286

While there are no essential differences in the positioning of older children and adults for surgical procedures, there are certain special aspects to be taken into consideration for infants, newborn babies and premature babies. The temperature in the operating theatre should be more than 25°C and the small patient should be kept warm with a warming mat and a warming lamp before and after the operation. A temperature sensor on the surface of the patient's body is mandatory to protect from burning. There is no need to spread out the arms of small children, the arms are positioned close to the body and fixed with a compress. Small foam pads are placed under the knees and feet to pad the lower extremities. Infants legs are fixed with a plastic strip instead of the belt.

Basically there are differences in the following posi-tionings: supine, prone, lateral, lithotomy and special positions, e.g. for minimally invasive procedures where the surgeon stands at the foot end or between the patient's legs.

21.1 Various positions 21.1.1 Supine position

O Figs. 21.1-21.6. Indications

All open and minimally invasive procedures to the intra-abdominal and thoracic organs for congenital deformities (e.g. gastroschisis, omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia), emergency operations (e.g. volvulus, necrotising enterocolitis, trauma), forms of cancer (e.g. Wilms' tumour, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma), urological procedures, hernia operations, funnel chest, placing a port catheter and procedures to the neck (neck cyst).

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