After ascertaining the proband's perception on their personal risk, it is important to give some objective estimate of risk, based on the family history. There are considerable epidemiological data available to give a quantitative risk estimate, based on the pedigree analysis. The advantage of such data is that they are applicable to the majority of individuals referred to the clinic and have either a negligible or modestly increased risk of cancer over the general population. Some estimates of risk can be derived from models that have been validated from follow-up datasets [80-82]. More precise risk estimates may be derived after genetic testing.
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