Coronal flaring (Fig. 3.5) may be accomplished in either a step-back or a crown-down approach. The step-back technique is the sequential use of instruments starting with the smaller sizes and progressing towards the larger. A crown-down approach is the serial use of instruments, starting with the larger and progressing to the smaller. Usually, nickel titanium rotary instruments are used in a crown-down technique, whereas ISO hand files and Gates Glidden drills are best used in a step-back technique for the following reasons:
• Smaller instruments can be placed at a deeper level and cut on the up stroke (thus facilitating the removal of debris).
• The coronal two-thirds can be moved and relocated from the region of the furcation and towards the greatest bulk of dentine.
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