• Preoperative radiograph
• Administration of a local anaesthetic
• *Rubber dam placement
• Identification and widening of canal orifices
• Investigation of canal patency
• Coronal two-thirds shaping
• Working length determination (using radiographs and/ or an apex locator)
• Apical shaping
• Mid-third shaping and canal refinement
*It may be appropriate to carry out access cavity preparation before isolation.
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