Summary of cleaning and shaping procedures

• Preoperative radiograph

• Administration of a local anaesthetic

• *Rubber dam placement

• Identification and widening of canal orifices

• Investigation of canal patency

• Coronal two-thirds shaping

• Working length determination (using radiographs and/ or an apex locator)

• Apical shaping

• Mid-third shaping and canal refinement

*It may be appropriate to carry out access cavity preparation before isolation.

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