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Everyday Roots

This book includes home remedies, natural beauty recipes and Diy household product tutorials. Discover over 215 suprising natural home remedies using common ingredients like onion, lemons and apple cider vinegar. EveryDay Roots will help you to make healthy changes in your life. Learn how to treat coughs, headaches and other health conditions with common ingredients like honey and watermelon. When you buy the book you get a 328 page Pdf with a clickable table of contents. More here...

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Initial considerations

3.4.1 Solubilization of membrane-bound proteins with detergents Detergent treatment is the most commonly used approach for solubilizing membrane proteins. The major concern with this method is a detergent-induced loss of enzymatic activity. Although Triton X-100 remains a popular first choice because of cost, many other ionic and non-ionic detergents are available if Triton X-100 treatment inactivates the enzyme. Another and frequently more troublesome problem is being able to remove the detergent from the solubilized enzyme without causing enzyme precipitation. In many cases, it is possible to lower the detergent concentration as the purification proceeds, eventually entirely omitting the detergent in the final steps.

TAg Binding Proteins as a Paradigm for the Identification of Cardiomyocyte Cell Cycle Regulators

Expressing T-Ag.16,17 Once generated, the cells were cultured in the presence of 35S-me-thionine in order to radiolabel the proteins. The cells were then disrupted in the presence of non-ionic detergents such that protein-protein interactions were maintained, and the resulting solution of proteins was reacted with anti-T-Ag monoclonal antibodies to form an immune complex. The immune complex was absorbed onto protein A-sepharose beads, collected by centrifugation, denatured and displayed on polyacrylamide gels. In addition to T-Ag, proteins with molecular weights of 53, 120, 193 and 380 kd were present in the anti-T-Ag immune complex, but not in control immune complex (Fig. 3). These data indicate that the proteins bind to T-Ag directly, or alternatively, that they bind T-Ag indirectly as part of a multi-protein complex. Importantly, all four proteins were present in immune complex generated with multiple anti-T-Ag antibodies.17,18 Moreover, the same binding proteins were observed in...

Protein Expression Solubilization and Purification in Membrane Proteins

To obtain well-ordered three-dimensional crystals, membrane proteins must be solubilized with the help of detergents - amphiphilic molecules that form micelles above their micellar concentration - and purified as protein-detergent complexes. Otherwise, extraction of membrane proteins from their native environment generally results in a loss of stability that can be dramatic. The detergent micelle covers the hydrophobic surface of the membrane protein in a belt-like manner (Garavito and Ferguson-Miller 2001). Protein-detergent complexes form three-dimensional crystals of the so-called type II, in which contacts between adjacent protein molecules are made by the polar surfaces of the protein protruding from the detergent micelle (Michel 1983). However, membrane protein-detergent interaction is a complex issue strong experimental evidence links many cases of inactivation to the dissociating character of detergents, which, by definition, are surfactants selected for their ability to...

Lipids Identified in the Structures

Elongated densities representative of hydrophobic moieties of either detergents or lipids. In some cases, the densities are clearly interpretable as lipids. In bacte-riorhodopsin crystals, they could be identified as phytanyl chains well characterized with their branched methyl groups (Belrhali et al. 1999 Luecke et al. 1999). These lipids are known to be the endogenous lipids of the purple membrane, copurified with the protein. The chains interact through numerous van der Waals contacts with hydrophobic side-chains. The lipids participate in the bacteriorho-dopsin trimer formation and also connect the trimers together within the purple membrane. However, the head groups, despite the presence of sulfur or phosphor atoms, could not be located in the electron density maps. Additional experiments ascertained the chemical nature of these molecules. Mass spectrometry on the crystals and on the purple membrane demonstrated that the same lipids (and no additional amphiphiles) are present in...

Impurity Clearance in Ion Exchange

While the interaction on IEX resins is predominantly electrostatic, it must be remembered that agents that cause changes in protein conformation can also influence binding. Accordingly, chaotropes such as urea and hydrophobic competitors such as propylene and ethylene glycol have been used for washes and as load additives on IEX. Being nonionic, these agents allow binding to the IEX columns, but can remove impurities that are bound to the product or nonspecifically bound to the resin. Detergents and zwitterionic amino acids such as glycine have also been employed for modulating IEX selectivity 38 .

Development of Wash Conditions

Following product loading, the column is often washed to elute any weakly bound impurities. On HIC, this can be accomplished by employing the equilibration buffer (which is typically at a similar salt concentration as the load solution) or if product binding permits, by employing a lower salt concentration than the load. pH is an important variable that can be optimized for the wash buffer since protein conformation changes significantly with pH. This can enable contaminants that bound during loading to be removed by the wash. For proteins that are tightly bound, specific wash conditions can be developed using mixtures of chaotropes to greatly enhance the separation power of the HIC step. Mixtures of mobile-phase additives (urea, glycerol, and sodium thiocyanate) in a wash buffer enabled the removal of impurities that could not be removed by any of the agents when used alone even at higher concentrations 59 . Useful hydro-phobic competitors include ethylene and propylene glycol and...

Fractionation Of Protein Complexes

Another approach for the isolation of protein complexes is based on affinity purification via one known member of the protein complex of interest. The most classical scheme is immunopurification, and this technique has been used for innumerable applications. However, this approach cannot be considered as a generic one, as it requires one to have specific antibodies. Moreover, artifactual binding of some proteins to antibodies is commonplace, and conditions used to decrease this spurious binding (e.g., high ionic strength, presence of detergents) can also lead to partial or total dissociation of the complex of interest. Related, targeted purifications of protein complexes also use affinity chromatography schemes. Instead of using antibodies as binders, they use chemical derivatives of known ligands of at least one member of the complex to be purified. One elegant strategy uses a ligand coupled chemically to oligo dA and allows purification of even membrane protein-containing complexes...

Fractionation Of Individual Proteins 651 The Problem of Protein Solubility

This solubility issue, however, is not a general case. The typical rule for membrane proteins is that they require a solvent that possesses both strong water- and hydrocarbon-like properties. This property is not found within mixed solvents (i.e., mixtures of water and water-miscible solvents), which only offer average properties and not a combination of both properties. Such a combination is only offered by a stable dispersion of hydrocarbon chains in a water-based solvent. This combination is the definition of lipid membranes, but such assemblies are very difficult to handle throughout a purification process. Hopefully, this definition also applies to detergent micelles, which are much easier to handle throughout a purification process. These constraints explain why detergents are universally successful for the disruption of cell membranes and for the solubilization of membrane proteins. The micelle-forming ability of detergents is driven by their chemical structure, which combines...

Present And Future Trends In Protein Fractionation In Proteomics

A further constraint imposed by proteomics is robustness. As proteomic analyses aim toward comprehensiveness, they should be ideally applicable to any type of protein. Owing to the amazing diversity of proteins, it is clear that no separation method can be considered as applicable to every protein. Thus, the usefulness of protein separation methods in proteomics will depend mainly on how they fulfill this robustness requirement and complement the proteomics technique used. As an example, size fractionation of denatured proteins is not attractive as a prefrac-tionation method, as many proteomics setups use that type of fractionation as a core component of the proteomics toolbox. However, prefractionation by preparative IEF is more useful, as it can be used in conjunction with very high resolution 2D electrophoresis to enhance the coverage of proteomes (Herbert et al., 2001). However, as preparative IEF is by definition plagued by the same solubility problems as those encountered in...

Purification techniques

(6), precipitation techniques (7,8) (Protocol 1) and evaporation, in which sample losses may be decreased by inclusion of 0.02 Tween-20 and avoiding complete dryness. Note that detergents can interfere with MS analysis. Proteins in gels can be concentrated by electrophoresing from several gel pieces into another gel (9,10) using modified loading techniques. To reduce losses of protein, keep solutions concentrated, minimize contact with new surfaces and keep solutions cold or frozen. During chromatography, small columns (see Section 4.4.1) keep concentrations high.

Carbon Chain Polymers

The biodegradability of functional derivatives of polyethylene, particularly polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylic acid and derivatives have received attention because of their water solubility, high-volume use, and disposal into the aqueous environment. Polyvinyl alcohol is used in a wide variety of applications, including textiles, paper, plastic films, and temporary packaging, and polyacrylic acid is widely used in detergents as a builder, super absorbent for diapers and feminine hygiene products, water treatment, thickeners, pigment dispersant, and the like.

Example of metabolic reaction

Once a drug has been released into the colonic lumen it is possible for it to be metabolised by colonic bacteria, which may result in the release of toxic products or the metabolism of the active drug to an inactive metabolite. For example, the bioavailability of digoxin from a delayed release formulation is reduced when compared with its bioavailability from conventional formulations, due to its degradation by colonic bacteria to the inactive dihydro-digoxin109.

Chemical Modification of Polysaccharides

Carboxylated natural polymers have been known for many years with the introduction of carboxymethyl cellulose, as noted above. This product has wide use in detergents and household cleaning formulations, even though of questionable biodegradability at the level of substitution required for performance. Nevertheless, carboxylated polysaccharides are a desirable goal for many applications, and the balance of biodegradation with performance has been recognized as an attractive target with a high probability of success by many people. Three approaches have been employed esterification, oxidation, or Michael addition of the hydroxyl groups with a suitable vinyl receptor. Attempts have also been made to react specifically at the primary hydroxyl, the 6 position, or secondary sites at the 2,3 positions of polysaccharides.

Isolation and Characterization of Nervous Tissue Proteoglycans

Nervous tissues contain a variety of proteoglycans (1-3). In tissues, proteoglycans are present predominantly in extracellular matrices and on cell surfaces. Proteoglycans in extracellular matrices are generally extracted in soluble fractions by physiological buffers without detergents, whereas cell surface proteoglycans that are anchored to the plasma membrane either by transmembrane domains or glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkages are fractionated into membrane fractions. Some proteoglycans in extracellular matrices requires chaotropic agents such as urea and guanidine for solubiliza-tion (4). It has been shown that a total of 20 g of proteoglycans (as protein) can be isolated from 1 g (wet weight) of embryonic rat brain tissues, in which 8 g are from the soluble fraction and 12 g are from the membrane fraction (1). In the case of adult rat brain, a total of 35 g of proteoglycans are isolated, 20 g in the soluble fraction and 15 g in the membrane fraction. In general, the...

The red cell membrane and chemistry of blood group antigens

Membrane Blood Group Antigens

About 20-40 of the proteins of the membrane are released relatively easily (e.g. by changing the ionic strength of the medium) and are therefore not very firmly attached (peripheral proteins). The remaining 60-80 are released only after drastic treatment with detergents or bile salts these integral proteins penetrate the lipid bilayer and, in some cases, are bound to the cytoskeleton. After red cell membranes have been treated with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate, the proteins can be separated electrophoretically on a polyacrylamide gel according to their molecular mass. If the gel is stained for protein, up to eight bands are seen, as shown in Figure 14.2. Bands 1 and 2 are proteins that are easily released by a low-ionic-strength medium. They are monomers and dimers of the contractile protein spectrin, which form a network of tetramers on the inner surface of the membrane, contributing to the maintenance of the red cell shape. Band 5 (actin) links the spectrin tetramers...

Quantitation of Proteoglycans in Biological Fluids Using Alcian Blue

Dot Blot Apparatus

Alcian blue is a tetravalent cation with a hydrophobic core that contains a copper atom, hence its blue color (1). The four charges allow Alcian Blue to bind to gly-cosaminoglycans (GAGs) at high ionic strength, in contrast to other cationic dyes, which are all monovalent. The molecular structure, that is, the plane tetragonal hydro-phobic core with positive charges attached at its corners, may facilitate formation of aggregates of several molecules side by side rather than micelle formation. The ionic strength and presence of other detergents will affect the size of these aggregates in solution. Such positively charged linear aggregates will bind strongly to some negatively charged polymers such as GAGs, but not to others such as nucleic acids reflecting the conformation of both the polymer and the dye. Alcian blue is not a well defined substance. There are large differences in solubility and binding characteristics among different manufacturers but also between batches from the same...

Conventional Sample Preparation

Proteins in SDS under reducing conditions, IEF practitioners have relied on various cocktails of chaotropes, surfactants and reducing agents. Chaotropes, urea being the most common for IEF, disrupt the hydrogen-bonding at the protein surface and cause partial unfolding. When water forms hydrogen bonds to the chaotropes rather than to the proteins, a protein is more likely to denature and expose its (often hydrophobic) interior. Once the hydrophobic interior of the protein is exposed, the solubility is often compromised in aqueous solution, thus the requirement for surfactants, more commonly called detergents. It is normal to have at least one surfactant present in the IEF cocktail to help solubilise the hydrophobic residues that are exposed as a result of denaturation in chaotropes. Even small amounts of ionic substances (e.g. 20 mM) are not generally compatible with steady-state IEF thus, the use of strong ionic detergents such as SDS is not recommended. As such, we are restricted to...

Dagan Wells And Jon Sherlock

Amplification efficiencies at the single cell level are generally less than encountered during the routine PCR of larger DNA samples. Most studies report an amplification success rate of around 90-95 , compared to almost 100 when using larger DNA samples. There are likely to be several explanations for this reduced efficiency. The cell sampled is sometimes lost during transfer to the tube in which amplification is to take place. Alternatively the cell may be anucleate or in the process of degeneration. In these cases the DNA may be degraded or entirely absent from the cell. Cells biopsied from an arrested or fragmented embryo do not amplify as well as those from an embryo of good morphology (Cui & Matthews, 1996 Ray et al., 1998). Amplification is also likely to be impaired if the cell is lysed during the isolation procedure, as this may cause the DNA to be lost or damaged. Even if a nucleus is still visible within the lysed cell, amplification efficiency is much less than that seen...

NMR in Bilayer Membranes

Protein Fingerprint Shift 15n

Samples of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers oriented on glass slides can be prepared by deposition from organic solvents followed by evaporation and lipid hydration, or by fusion of reconstituted unilamellar lipid vesicles with the glass surface (Marassi 2002). The choice of solvents in the first method, and of detergents in the second, is critical for obtaining highly oriented lipid bilayer preparations. In all cases the thinnest available glass slides are utilized to obtain the best filling factor in the coil of the probe. With carefully prepared samples it is possible to obtain 1SN resonance linewidths of less than 3 ppm (Marassi et al. 1997). Notably, these linewidths are less than those typically observed in single crystals of peptides, demonstrating that the proteins in the bilayers are very highly oriented, with mosaic spreads ofless than about 2 .

Neutron Diffractionwith Contrast Variation

Figure 3.4 shows the mean scattering length density, which is the relevant quantity for neutron scattering (equivalent to mean electron density for X-ray scattering) as a function of D20. The contrast, i.e. the difference in scattering length density for one component and solvent, varies as a function of D20 concentration. The figure also shows that in some cases the contrast can even by cancelled for example, at 40 D20 the protein will be matched out. Proteins, lipids, detergents and nucleic acids have different scattering length density curves and thus different contrasts. Neutron scattering at low resolution is therefore of particular interest when the crystal contains at least two different types of molecules, for example protein and detergent, as is the case for many membrane protein crystals. In that case, neutron density maps obtained with a solvent containing 40 D20 will show only the detergent structure, whereas with 20 D20 only the protein will be seen. The experimental...

Cell disruption and fractionation

The distribution of cellular proteolytic enzymes among different compartments means that careful disruption of the cells followed by subcellular fractionation can yield samples which are low in endogenous proteolytic activity. Tissues should be disrupted so as to avoid breakage of proteinase-rich vacuoles and lysosomes. This requires the use of gentle techniques (homogenization, freeze-thaw in liquid nitrogen and the omission of detergents such as Triton X-100 which dissolve vacuolar lysosomal membranes). To prevent osmotic rupture of organelles, samples should be homogenized in isotonic solution (e.g. 0.25 m sucrose). Digitonin (0.8 mg ml) can be used to perforate the plasma membrane without the lysis of organelles. After homogenization, the vacuolar fraction can be removed by differential centrifugation. Following a low-speed spin (5 min at 800 g) to remove unbroken cells and nuclei, a further centrifugation for 10 min at 12 000 g in a standard preparative centrifuge should be...

Protein Expression and Purification

Poor specificity and enzyme inactivation, often encountered with protease treatment of insoluble proteins. However, in cases where Met mutation is not feasible, protein cleavage from the fusion partner can be obtained enzymatically, by engineering specific protease cleavage sites for the commonly used enzymes thrombin, Fxa, enterokinase, and tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease. Thrombin and TEV retain activity in the presence of detergents, including low mM concentrations of SDS.

Anna L McBain and David M Mann

Proteoglycan Structure

Conventional approaches to purifying most connective tissue proteoglycans (PGs) generally involve treatments that consequently alter the binding properties of the purified PG (e.g., exposure to strong detergents or harsh denaturants such as guanidinium). Herein we describe a protocol that we use to isolate human decorin in which the PG remains functional in its binding to various ligands (1,2). This method utilizes a eukaryotic expression system that produces high quantities of recombinant human decorin as a soluble component of the transfected cell culture medium together with a combination of conventional ion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chro-matography. Here we provide detailed instructions for (1) the production of conditioned medium containing secreted recombinant human decorin, (2) the initial ion-exchange chromatography step using DEAE-Sepharose, and (3) the final hydro-phobic-interaction chromatography step.

Recent Advances in the Understanding of Mammalian Polyamine Catabolism

Polyamine Cell Proliferation Odc

As more data emerge, the significance of polyamine catabolism in polyamine homeostasis, drug response, and disease etiology is expanding. Importantly, the regulation and function of the polyamine catabolic pathway has emerged as a rational target for drug intervention in both chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive strategies. Mammalian intracellular polyamine catabolism had long been thought to be a two-step process primarily regulated by a rate-limiting acetyltransferase, spermidine spermine -acetyltransferase (SSAT), followed by the activity of a constitutively expressed acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAO). However, as recent reports have clearly demonstrated, mammalian polyamine catabolism also includes the activity of a previously unrecognized spermine oxidase (SMO PAOhl). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other toxic products by these various polyamine catabolic enzymes can result in both useful and potentially dangerous consequences. This chapter will examine some of...

Textile Wet Processing Chemicals

Surfactants are used in wet processing to ensure complete wetting and penetration of processing solutions, or in some cases as foaming agents 10 . In addition, surfactants are used for wet processing applications such as dyeing, dispersing, emulsifying, bath lubricants, desizing, detergents, scouring, mercerizing, bleaching, dye retarders and levelers, and finishing 37-40 . A wide variety of types are available, which allows for selection of less polluting alternatives for these purposes 38 . Cationic surfactants are used in textiles and account for as much as 12 of all fabric softener use 41 . They lower the surface tension of water and assist in emulsion, dispersion, and foam stabilization 39 . Of 400 million pounds per year of APE use, 82 is ethoxylated nonyl phenol of which about 80-90 million pounds of APE are treated and discharged to rivers each year 37 .

Electrophoresis Techniques

The straightforward answer to this new problem is to use additives that can bind to proteins and increase their native charge. One example is the Coomassie Blue used in the BN-Page technique for separation of protein complexes (see Section 6.4 of this chapter). However, the most popular additives are charged detergents, especially SDS. SDS has the special property of binding proteins with a quasiuniform stoichiometry of 1.4 g SDS per g protein (Reynolds and Tanford, 1970). This very important binding has two favorable consequences. The first one is to make every protein strongly negatively charged. This induces a very important electrostatic repulsion and prevents almost all aggregation phenomena during elec-trophoresis. The second consequence is to mask the native electrical charge of the protein below the charges brought by SDS binding. This masking almost nullifies the influence of the native charge of the proteins and gives rise to an electrophoretic system where protein size is...

Disaccharide Composition in Glycosaminoglycans Proteoglycans Analyzed by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

The migration of analytes toward the detector depends on two main factors electro-phoretic mobility (EM), due to the net charge of the analyte and electroosomotic flow (EOF) of the free solution, caused mainly by dissociation of silanol groups in the capillary glass wall and migration of resultant H3O+ toward the anode. Both these effects can be modulated to change the separation. The net charge of the analyte is readily modified by ion pairing or ion suppression. The EOF of the solution depends on the pH and can be completely blocked by the inclusion of detergents in the separation buffer or by coating the inner capillary surface with hydrophobic agents or surfactants.

Different sources of CSF proteins

Csf Barriers

Barriers to the egress of plasma proteins are found in other tissues, notably the kidney as depicted in Figure 5.1. Here the most important portion of the barrier is the basement membrane, since after removal of all the cells using detergents (Triton), the remaining extracellular skeleton still performs the macromolecular sieving action to the same degree as the intact kidney 94 .

Subcellular Fractionation

The rationale for subcellular fractionation is to open the cells of the sample of interest in such a way that the subcellular component of interest receives minimal damage. This lysis is usually done by mechanical homogenization. This process must be carefully controlled and varies from one sample to another in order to achieve the best compromise between total lysis of cells (and thus a high yield) and minimal damage to the intracellular component(s) of interest. This homogeniza-tion process is the only one applicable to most organelles, that is, intracellular structures limited by a lipid membrane, which are very sensitive to osmotic pressure and detergents. When the integrity of the component of interest is not solely dependent on the presence of a lipid membrane (e.g., nuclei, cytoskeleton), detergents can be used to solubilize all lipid membranes present in the cells, both the plasma membrane and those limiting the organelles (Hymer and Kuff, 1964). This detergent addition...

Pleiotropic Effects Of Cholesterol Synthesis Inhibition

The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is sufficiently complex and heterogeneous to permit structural and functional compartmentalization. These compartments include multiple types of microdomains with specialized functions, such as focal adhesions, tight and adherens junctions, and clathrin-coated pits. Studies of the biophysical properties of plasma membranes, of the behavior of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in membranes, of membrane organelles termed caveolae, and of intracellular transport processes provide evidence for the existence of a distinct type of membrane microdomain generally referred to as the lipid raft (93). Lipid rafts, also sometimes referred to as detergent-resistant membranes, are microdomains that contain high concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids with long saturated acyl chains (e.g., sphingolipids), relative to the majority of the plasma membrane. The acyl chain composition of the lipids in the membrane is a major determinant of...

Background for Molecular Methods to Study HSPGMediated Endocytosis

The FcR-Synd1 chimera offers many advantages, primarily by providing a simple and easily controlled experimental system. First, contributions to ligand catabolism from other cell-surface molecules, such as LDL receptor family members and HSPGs, are completely eliminated if the chimera is expressed in a cell type with no endogenous Fc receptors. Thus, we stably express FcR-Synd1 in CHO cells, which we have already used to study syndecan-mediated endocytosis (27). Second, ligand clustering, which appears to trigger efficient syndecan-mediated endocytosis, can be induced at will through the use of a clustering agent (see Fig. 2B and Subheading 3.4.) (27). Third, the ligand, 125I-IgG, does not deliver any lipids to the cells, nor is it broken apart by detergents. Thus, the role of cold Triton-insoluble, cholesterol-rich membrane rafts in this endocytic pathway can be more easily examined than when relying on lipoproteins as ligands (see Subheading 3.5.) (79,80). Fourth, in terms of...

Lowlevel protein preparation for characterization by mass spectrometry

When attempting low-level (i.e. sub-picomole) protein identification or sequencing, a number of precautions have to be taken in order to avoid sample contamination and losses. All buffers and reagents should be made fresh using chemicals of the highest available purity. Stocks of chemicals should be kept in a clean environment. Dust is a common source of contamination and every effort should be made to clean thoroughly all equipment used in sample handling (e.g. microcentrifuge tubes, gloves, spatulas, glassware, etc.). Gloves should be worn consistently to minimize contamination by human and sheep keratins (originating from skin and clothing). The overall level of contamination can be greatly reduced if all sample handling steps are carried out in a laminar flow hood. Most detergents and polymeric compounds are detrimental to MS analysis and should therefore be avoided. additional sample loss. An attractive alternative for low to sub-picomole amounts of proteins is to perform all...

Mint Oils and Menthol

2 essential oil of complex composition. Peppermint oil is characterized by menthol and menthone, spearmint by carvone, and cornmint by a high concentration of menthol (70-95 ). The mint oils are used extensively as fragrance components in toothpastes, mouthwashes, gargles, soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes in flavoring chewing gums, candies, chocolates, and alcoholic beverages and in medicines. Peppermint oil is used in cough mixtures as an expectorant, as a choleretic and antiseptic agent, and in enteric-coated capsules to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Cornmint oil is used mainly for the production of menthol. The oil is slowly cooled, which induces the crystallization of menthol. The dementholized oil still contains 30-45 menthol, and this is the commercial cornmint oil (2,13).

Premade Kits

One strategy for getting started quickly with refolding a protein from inclusion bodies utilizes premade protein refolding kits. At least half a dozen premade protein refolding screening kits are currently available. Protein refolding kits are designed with all of the necessary solution components, simply requiring the addition of inclusion body to the refolding matrix. The majority of these kits utilize guanidine-HCl or urea as a denaturant, GSH GSSG as disulfide-shuffling agents, and mixtures of detergents, sugars, amino acids, and salts as additives. In general, the available protein refolding kits simply package basic refolding conditions into a convenient, easy to use format, but do not offer innovative, proprietary refolding technology. Several notable kits include the FoldIt Screen by Hampton Research, the Pro-Matrix Protein Refolding Kit by Pierce, and the Protein Refolding Kit by Novagen. The Refolding CA Kit by


Although there has been much activity to produce totally biodegradable water-soluble polymers for a variety of applications, especially for detergents, few complete successes have been registered beyond poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ethylene oxides), and poly(aspartic acids). Almost all efforts to obtain carbon chain polymers that are completely biodegradable have failed, at least in the short-term testing protocols currently in use. Some promising leads are noted in condensation polymers, polyaspartic acids, and acetals and in the modification of natural polysaccharides.

The Problem

Lawn and garden chemicals, and misuse and improper disposal of chemicals by businesses and institutions are important contributions to non-point-source discharges in many states. Some of the waste generated may also be hazardous. The users and disposers in many situations are unaware of the environmental and economic benefits to be derived from source reduction activities. Although many communities in the United States sponsor periodic waste collection programs and a few have permanent collection stations, only a small portion of the population is served in this way. The high costs of conducting household waste collection days have deterred wider implementation of such programs. Since household waste (both nonhazardous and hazardous) is not regulated, public education is a key ingredient in achieving proper management and reduction in the generation of these wastes. In many communities the household waste is presorted out at source into different categories, such as glass, cans,...

Surface Tension

You can observe the effects of surface tension by conducting a simple experiment at home. When you shake black pepper into a glass of water, you will observe that the pepper will float because of surface tension. When a drop of soap or detergent is added to the water, the pepper will sink. Soap or detergents have the ability to reduce the surface tension of liquids.

Interfacial Tension

Interfacial tension arises at the boundary of two immiscible liquid due to the imbalance of intermolecular forces. Emulsifiers and detergents function by lowering the interfacial tension. Generally, the higher the interfacial tension, the lower is the solubility of the solvents in each other. Interfacial tension values between water and some organic solvents and oils are given in Table 6.2.

Buffers for IMAC

Immobilized metal affinity chromatography media can tolerate chaotropes, organic solvents, and detergents quite well. These agents can be employed as wash buffer additives to selectively remove impurities. More typically however, the wash will consist of a buffer with either lower pH than the load or with a moderate concentration of imidazole in-between that of the load and elution conditions.


The elastic fibres of the lung and the wall tension of the alveoli would cause the lung to collapse if this were not counterbalanced by the presence of the lung surfactant system. This covers the alveolar surface to the thickness of 10 to 20 nm. The surfactant has a liquid crystalline or gel structure which consists of phospholipids (74 ), mucopolysaccharides and possibly proteins. It forms a continuous covering over the alveoli and is constantly renewed from below. Fifty percent of the surfactant comprises of dipalmitoyl lecithin, replacement of which is rapid with a half-life of 14 hours. Enzymes, lipids and detergents


Ionic and nonionic detergents, 5 iodine, common organic solvents such as 45 alcohol, ether and chloroform, formalin and -propriolactone. Attack by a rabid animal constitutes a medical emergency. Immediate and thorough washing of all bite wounds and scratches with soap and water and, if available, a virucidal solution as described above, such as quaternary ammonium disinfectants, ionic and nonionic detergents or 5 iodine, are most important. Avoid closure of the wound surgically unless suture of a large wound is essential because of the size of the wound, the potential for bacterial infection and cosmetic reasons.

Fticr Ion Detection

Unfortunately, several factors complicate the peptide mass fingerprinting approach. Important limiting factors are sample losses by inappropriate handling, incomplete digestion of low-abundance or hydrophobic proteins, multiple proteins in one gel spot, and the presence of contaminants (e.g., detergents, salts, human keratin). These factors are critical when analyzing protein amounts in the lower fmol range. All protein modifications such as, e.g., glycosylation or phosphoryla-tion also complicate the PMF-approach. In such cases, the best strategy is the chemical or enzymatic removal of these modifications provided that they can be predicted. In the course of automation for high throughput proteomics, the PMF approach is very applicable, since hundreds of protein identifications can be per

Pregel Fractionation

Several procedures that utilize isoelectric prefractionation on immobilized pH gradients have been described (Herbert and Righetti, 2000 Righetti et al., 2001 Zuo and Speicher, 2000, 2002). Extraction procedures using Triton X-114 and alkaline media in combination with sequential extraction by different zwitterionic detergents have also been used to enhance the separation and visualization of soluble and hydrophobic proteins (Santoni et al., 1999). Subcellular fractionation is another promising approach by which sample complexity can be reduced. A systematic identification of the protein components of cell organelles is currently underway and has been reviewed elsewhere (Jung et al., 2000).

Sample requirements

SDS fatal to MS, Edman sequencing, and reverse-phase chromatography non-ionic detergents can interfere but tolerable in reverse-phase chromatography and at times in MALDI-TOF MS high concentrations will inhibit proteolysis Removes salts, non-ionic, detergents, may give purification and concentration

Color Studies

Another area that has been researched extensively by industry deals with color. If one were in a restaurant ordering dinner and received an orange steak with purple French fries and a blue salad, the meal would be difficult to consume. People's individual perceptions of color are extremely important. Variations from these expectations can be very difficult to overcome. Researchers have found that people's perceptions of color also influence their beliefs about products. When reactions to laundry detergents were examined, detergent in a blue box was found to be too weak, while detergent in a yellow box was thought to be too strong. Consumers believed, based on coloration, that the ideal detergent came in a blue box with yellow accentuation. Similarly, when individuals were asked to judge the capsule color of drugs, findings suggested that orange capsules were frequently seen as stimulants, white capsules as having an analgesic action, and lavender capsules as having a hallucinogenic...

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Thousands Have Used Chemicals To Improve Their Medical Condition. This Book Is one Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Chemicals. Not All Chemicals Are Harmful For Your Body – Find Out Those That Helps To Maintain Your Health.

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