Acknowledgments

I thank Markus Pauly and Steven Lenhert for critically reading this review. REFERENCES

1. NC Carpita, M McCann. The cell wall. In: BB Buchanan, W Gruissem, RL Jones, eds. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. Rockville, MD: American Society of Plant Physiologists, 2000, pp 52-108.

2. NC Carpita, DM Gibeaut. Structural models of primary-cell walls in flowering plants—consistency of molecular-structure with the physical-properties of the walls during growth. Plant J 3:1-30, 1993.

3. PB Green, RO Erickson, PA Richmond. On the physical basis of cell morphogenesis. Ann NY Acad Sci 175:712-731, 1970.

4. DJ Cosgrove. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:391-417, 1999.

5. HT Cho, DJ Cosgrove. Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 9783-9788, 2000.

6. K Vissenberg, IM Martinez-Vilchez, JP Verbelen, JG Miller, SC Fry. In vivo colocalization of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase activity and its donor substrate in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots. Plant Cell 12:1229-1237, 2000.

7. TH Giddings, LA Staehelin. The cell wall: microtubule-mediated control of microfibril deposition—a re-examination of the hypothesis. In: CW Lloyd, ed. The Cytoskeletal Basis of Plant Growth and Form. London: Academic Press, 1991, pp 85-99.

8. GO Wasteneys. The cytoskeleton and growth polarity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:503-511, 2000.

9. E Zamski, A Schaffer, eds. Photoassimilate Distribution in Plants and Crops. Source-Sink Relationships. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996.

10. A Sturm. Invertases. Primary structures, functions, and roles in plant development and sucrose partitioning. Plant Physiol 121:1-7, 1999.

11. KE Koch. Carbohydrate-modulated gene expression in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:509-540, 1996.

12. FB Abeles, WL Hershberger, LJ Dunn. Hormonal regulation, and intracellular localization of a 33-kD cationic peroxidase in excised cucumber cotyledons. Plant Physiol 89:664-668, 1989.

13. L Gälweiler, C Guan, A Müller, E Wisman, K Mendgen, A Yephremov, K Palme. Regulation of polar auxin transport by AtPINl in Arabidopsis vascular tissue. Science 282:2226-2229, 1998.

14. N Carpita, D Sabularse, D Montezinos, DP Delmer. Determination of the pore size of cell walls of living plant cells. Science 205:1144-1147, 1979.

15. C Fleischer, R Titel, R Ehwald. The boron requirement and cell wall properties of growing and stationary suspension-cultured Chenopodium rubrum album L. cells. Plant Physiol 117:1401-1410, 1998.

16. G Wallace, SC Fry. Phenolic components of the plant cell wall. Int Rev Cytol 151:229-267, 1994.

17. A Levine, R Tenhaken, R Dixon, C Lamb. H202 from the oxidative burst orchestrates the plant hypersensitive disease resistance responses. Cell 79: 583-593, 1994.

18. JP Knox, PJ Linstead, J King, C Cooper, K Roberts. Pectin esterification is spatially regulated both within cell walls and between developing tissues of root apices. Plant 181:512-521, 1990.

19. M Smallwood, A Beven, N Donovan, SJ Neill, J Peart, K Roberts, JP Knox. Localization of cell wall proteins in relation to the developmental anatomy of the carrot root apex. Plant J 5:237-246, 1994.

20. JP Knox, S Day, K Roberts. A set of cell surface glycoprotein forms an early marker of cell position, but not cell type, in the root apical meristem of Daucus carota L. Development 106:47-56, 2001.

21. KD Belanger, RS Quatrano. Polarity: the role of localized secretion. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:67-72, 2000.

22. B Moerschbacher, K Mendgen. Structural aspects of defense. In: AJ Slusar-enko, RSS Fräser, LC van Loon, eds. Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Diseases. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, pp 231-277.

23. R Mittler, EH Herr, BL Orvar, W van Camp, H Willekes, CD Inz, BE Ellis. Transgenic tobacco plants with reduced capability to detoxify reactive oxygen intermediates are hyperresponsive to pathogen infection. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 96:14165-14170, 1999.

24. BM Moerschbacher, HJ Reisener. The hypersensitive resistance reaction. In: H Hartleb, R Heitefuss, HH Hoppe, eds. Resistance of Crop Plants against Fungi. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1997, pp 126-158.

25. C Neinhuis, W Barthlott. Characterization and distribution of water-repellent, self-cleaning plant surfaces. Ann Bot 79:667-677, 1997.

26. J Huang. Ultrastructure of bacterial penetration in plants. Annu Rev Phyto-pathol 24:141-157, 1986.

27. D Rubiales, RE Niks. Avoidance of rust infection by some genotypes of Hordeum chilense due to their relative inability to induce the formation of appressoria. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 49:89-101, 1996.

28. E Stahl, JG Bishop. Plant-pathogen arms races at the molecular level. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:299-304, 2000.

29. M Parniske. Intracellular accommodation of microbes by plants: a common developmental program for symbiosis and disease? Curr Opin Plant Biol 3: 320-328, 2000.

30. B Ahlborn, D Werner. Inhibition of l,3-/3-glucan synthase from Glycine max and Pisum sativum by exopolysaccharides of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 39:299-307, 1991.

31. JA Munoz, C Coronado, J Perez-Hormaeche, A Kondorosi, P Ratet, AJ Palomares. MSPG3, a Medicago sativa polygalacturonase gene expressed during the alfalfa Rhizobium meliloti interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:96879692, 1998.

32. AAN Van Brüssel, R Bakhuizen, PC Van Spronsen, HP Spaink, T Tak, BJJ Lugtenberg, JW Kijne. Induction of preinfection thread structures in the leguminous host plant by mitogenic lipooligosaccharides of Rhizobium. Science 257:70-72, 1992.

33. B Moerschbacher, M Mierau, B Graeßner, U Noll, AJ Mort. Small oligomers of galacturonic acid are endogenous suppressors of disease resistance reactions in wheat leaves. J Exp Bot 50:605-612, 1999.

34. JC Stein, R Dixit, ME Nasralla, JB Nasralla. SRK, the stigma specific S locus receptor kinase of Brassica, is targeted to the plasma membrane in transgenic tobacco. Plant Cell 8:429-445, 1996.

35. K Kandasamy, D Paolillo, C Faraday, JB Nasralla, ME Nasralla. The S locus specific glycoproteins of Brassica accumulate in the cell wall of developing stigma papillae. Dev Biol 134:462-472, 1989.

36. CR Schopfer, ME Nasralla, JB Nasralla. The male determinant of self-incompatibility in Brassica. Science 286:1697-1700, 1999.

37. HG Dickinson. Dry stigmas, water and self-incompatibility. Sex Plant Reprod 8:1-10, 1995.

38. A Darvill, C Augur, C Bergmann, RW Carlson, JJ Cheong, S Eberhard, MG Hahn, VM Lo, V Marfa, B Meyer, D Mohnen, MA O'Neill, MD Spiro, H van Haibeek, WS York, P Albersheim. Oligosaccharins—oligosaccharides that regulate growth, development and defence responses in plants. Glyco-biology 2:181-198, 1992.

39. DTA Lamport. The primary cell wall. In: RA Young, RM Rowell, eds. Cellulose: Structure, Modification and Hydrolysis. New York: Wiley, 1986, pp 77-90.

40. M McNeil, AG Darvill, SC Fry. Structure and function of the primary cell walls of plants. Annu Rev Biochem 53:625-663, 1984.

41. K Keegstra, KW Talmadge, WD Bauer, P Albersheim. Structure of plant cell walls. III. A model of the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells based on their interconnections of the macromolecular components. Plant Physiol 51:188-197, 1973.

42. K Iiyama, TBT Lam, BA Stone. Covalent cross-links in the cell wall. Plant Physiol 104:315-320, 1994.

43. NC Carpita. Structure and biogenesis of the cell walls of grasses. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:445-476, 1996.

44. S Levy, G MacLachlan, LA Staehelin. Xyloglucan sidechains modulate binding to cellulose during in vitro binding assays as predicted by conformational dynamics simulations. Plant J 11:373-386, 1997.

45. NC Carpita. Fractionation of hemicelluloses from maize cell walls with increasing concentrations of alkali. Phytochemistry 23:1089-1093, 1984.

46. J Visser, AGJ Voragen. Pectins and pectinases. Progress in Biotechnology. Vol 14. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1996.

47. I Braccini, RP Brasso, S Perez. Conformational and configurational features of acidic polysaccharides and their interactions with calcium ions: a molecular modeling investigation. Carbohydr Res 317:119-130, 1999.

48. M O'Neill, D Warrenfeltz, K Kates, P Pellerin, T Doco, AG Darvill, P Albersheim. Rhamnogalacturonan-II, a pectic polysaccharide in the walls of growing plant cell, forms a dimer that is covalently cross-linked by a borate ester. J Biol Chem 271:22923-22930, 1996.

49. KCB Wilkie. The hemicelluloses of grasses and cereals. Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 36:215-264, 1979.

50. J Ralph, S Quideau, JH Grabber, RD Hatfield. Identification and synthesis of new ferulic acid dehydrodimers present in grass cell walls. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1:3485-3498, 1994.

51. GI Cassab. Plant cell wall proteins. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:281-309, 1998.

52. MT Herrera, I Zarra. Changes in the hemicellulosic polysaccharides of Avena coleoptile cell walls during growth of intact seedlings. Can J Bot 66:949954, 1988.

53. DG Luttenegger, DJ Nevins. Transient nature of a (l-3),(l-4)-/3-D-glucan in Zea mays coleoptile cell walls. Plant Physiol 77:175-178, 1985.

54. MS Bush, MC McCann. Pectic epitopes are differentially distributed in the cell walls of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Physiol Plant 107:201-213, 1999.

55. MC McCann, K Roberts. Architecture of the primary cell wall. In: CW Lloyd, ed. The Cytoskeletal Basis of Plant Growth and Form. London: Academic Press, 1992, pp 109-129.

56. K Roberts, MC McCann. Xylogenesis: the birth of a corpse. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:517-522, 2000.

57. DM Gibeaut, NC Carpita. Biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides. FASEB J 8:904-915, 1994.

58. M Otegui, LA Staehelin. Cytokinesis in flowering plants: more than one way to divide a cell. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:493-502, 2000.

59. AL Samuels, TH Giddings, LA Staehelin. Cytokinesis in tobacco BY-2 and root tip cells: a new model of cell plate formation in higher plants. J Cell Biol 130:1-13, 1995.

60. J Zuo, QW Niu, N Nishizawa, Y Wu, B Kost, N-H Chua. KORRIGAN, an Arabidopsis endo-1,4-/3-glucanase, localizes to the cell plate by polarized targeting and is essential for cytokinesis. Plant Cell 12:1137-1152, 2000.

61. DP Delmer. Cellulose biosynthesis: exciting times for a difficult field of study. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:245-276, 1999.

62. J Pear, Y Kawagoe, W Schreckengost, DP Delmer, D Stalker. Higher plants contain homologs of the bacterial CelA genes encoding the catalytic sub-unit of the cellulose synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 93:12637-12642, 1996.

63. IM Saxena, RM Brown. Cellulose synthases and related enzymes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:523-531, 2000.

64. S Cutler, C Somerville. Cellulose synthesis: cloning in silico. Curr Biol 7: R108-R111, 1997.

65. T Richmond, C Somerville. The cellulose synthase superfamily. Plant Physiol 124:495-498, 2000.

66. S Kimura, W Laosinchai, T Itoh, X Cui, C Linder, RM Brown Jr. Immunogold labeling of rosette terminal cellulose-synthesizing complexes in the vascular plant Vigna angularis. Plant Cell 11:2075-2085, 1999.

67. RMJ Brown, IM Saxena. Cellulose biosynthesis: a model for understanding the assembly of biopolymers. Plant Physiol Biochem 38:57-67, 2000.

68. IM Saxena, RMJ Brown, M Fevre, RA Geremia, B Henrissat. Multidomain architecture of ß-glycosyl transferases: implications for mechanism of action. J Bacteriol 177:1419-1424, 1995.

69. N Holland, D Holland, T Helentjaris, K Dhugga, B Xoconostle-Cazare, DP Delmer. A comparative analysis of the plant cellulose synthase (CesA) gene family. Plant Physiol 123:1313-1324, 2000.

70. NG Taylor, WR Scheible, S Cutler, CR Somerville, SR Turner. The irregular xylem3 locus of Arabidopsis encodes a cellulose synthase required for secondary cell wall synthesis. Plant Cell 11:769-779, 1999.

71. T Arioli, L Peng, AS Betzner, J Brun, W Wittke, W Herth, C Camilleri. Molecular analysis of cellulose biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Science 279:717720, 1998.

72. D Mohnen. Biosynthesis of pectins and galactomannans. In: BM Pinto ed. Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry. Vol. 3: Carbohydrates and Their Derivatives Including Tannins, Cellulose and Related Lignins. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1999, pp 497-527.

73. RM Perrin, AE deRocher, M Bar-Peled, W Zeng, L Norambuena, A Orellana, NV Raikhel, K Keegstra. Xyloglucan fucosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in plant cell wall biosynthesis. Science 284:1976-1979, 1999.

74. ME Edwards, CA Dickson, S Chengappa, C Sidebottom, MJ Gidley, JSG Reid. Molecular characterization of a membrane-bound galactosyltranserase of plant cell wall matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis. Plant J 19:691-697, 1999.

75. A Faik, M Bar-Peled, AE deRocher, WQ Zeng, RM Perrin, C Wilkerson, NV Raikhel, K Keegstra. Biochemical characterization and molecular cloning of an a-1,2-fucosy¡transferase that catalyzes the last step of cell wall xyloglucan biosynthesis in pea. J Biol Chem 275:15082-15089, 2000.

76. JC Paulson, KJ Colley. Glycosyltransferases—structure, localization, and control of cell type-specific glycosylation. J Biol Chem 264:17615-17618, 1989.

77. C Wulff, L Norambuena, A Orellana. GDP-fucose uptake into the Golgi apparatus during xyloglucan biosynthesis requires the activity of a transporterlike protein other than the UDP-glucose transporter. Plant Physiol 122:867877, 2000.

78. C Somervill, S Cutler. Use of genes encoding xylan synthase to modify plant cell wall composition. International patent application, 1998.

79. DM Gibeaut. Nucleotide sugars and glycosyltransferases for synthesis of cell wall matrix polysaccharides. Plant Physiol Biochem 38:69-80, 2000.

80. YA Campbell, GJ Davies, V Bulone, B Henrissat. A classification of nucle-otide-diphospho-sugar glycosyl transferases based upon amino-acid similarities. Biochem J 326:929-939, 1997.

81. HV Scheller, RL Doong, BL Ridley, D Mohnen. Pectin biosynthesis: a sol-ubilized alpha 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase from tobacco catalyzes the transfer of galacturonic acid from UDP-galacturonic acid onto the non-reducing end of homogalacturonan. Planta 207:512-517, 1999.

82. RL Doong, D Mohnen. Solubilization and characterization of a galacturono-syltransferase that synthesizes the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. Plant J 13:363-374, 1998.

83. F Goubet, D Mohnen. Subcellular localization and topology of homogalacturonan methyltransferase in suspension-cultured Nicotiana tabacum cells. Planta 209:112-117, 1999.

84. JTDM Gaffe, AK Handa. Pectin methylesterase isoforms in tomato (Lyco-persicon esculentum) tissues. Effects of expression of a pectin methylesterase antisense gene. Plant Physiol 105:199-203, 1994.

85. M McNeill, A Darvill, P Albersheim. Structure of plant cell walls X. Rham-nogalacturonan I, a structurally complex pectic polysaccharide in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. Plant Physiol 66:1128-1134, 1980.

86. P Komalavilas, AJ Mort. The acetylation at 0-3 of galacturonic acid in the rhamnose-rich portion of pectins. Carbohydr Res 189:261-272, 1989.

87. N Geshi, B Jorgensen, HV Scheller, P Ulvskov. In vitro biosynthesis of 1,4-/3-galactan attached to rhamnogalacturonan I. Planta 210:622-629, 2000.

88. JL Hadlington, J Denecke. Sorting of soluble proteins in the secretory pathway of plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:461-468, 2000.

89. LA Staehelin, I Moore. The plant Golgi apparatus: structure, functional organization and trafficking mechanisms. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46:261-288, 1995.

90. M Vicre, A Jauneau, JP Knock, A Driouich. Immunolocalization of beta-(-l) and beta-(l-6)-D-galactan epitopes in the cell wall and Golgi stacks of developing flax foot tissues. Protoplasma 203:26-34, 1998.

91. CP Bonin, WD Reiter. A bifunctional epimerase-reductase acts downstream of the MURI gene product and completes the de novo synthesis of GDP-fucose in Arabidopsis. Plant J 21:445-454, 2000.

92. B Seitz, C Kos, M Wurm, R Tenhaken. Matrix polysaccharide in Arabidopsis cell walls are synthesized by alternate pathways with organ-specific expression patterns. Plant J 21:537-546, 2000.

93. JC Kader. Lipid-transfer proteins in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:627-654, 1996.

94. CA De, WJ Van, P Dhaese, FG Loontiens. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of the lectin from Vicia faba. Arch Int Physiol Biochim 84:150-151, 1976.

95. LS Melchers, MH Stuiver. Novel genes for disease-resistance breeding. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:147-152, 2000.

96. NE El Gueddari, B Moerschbacher. A rust fungus turns chitin into chitosan upon plant tissue colonization to evade recognition by the host. Adv Chitin Sei 4:588-592, 1999.

97. G Strittmatter, J Janssens, C Opsomer, J Botterman. Inhibition of fungal disease development in plants by engineering controlled cell death. Bio/Technology 13:1085-1089, 1995.

98. G Wu, BJ Shortt, EB Lawrence, KC Fitzsimmons, DM Shak. Disease resistance conferred by expression of a gene encoding H202-generating glucose oxidase in transgenic potato plants. Plant Cell 7:1357-1368, 1995.

99. JC Cushman, HJ Bohnert. Genomic approaches to plant stress tolerance. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:117-124, 2000.

100. D Post-Beittenmiller. Biochemistry and molecular biology of wax production in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:405-430, 1996.

101. U Sonnewald, MR Hajirezaei, J Kossmann, A Heyer, RN Trethewey, L Will-mitzer. Increased potato tuber size resulting from apoplastic expression of a yeast invertase. Nat Biotechnol 15:794-797, 1997.

102. G Tucker, J Zhang. Expression of polygalacturonase and pectinesterase in normal and transgenic tomatoes. I. In: J Visser, AGJ Voragen, eds. Pectins and Pectinases. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996, pp 347-368.

103. J Grima-Pettenati, D Goffner. Lignin genetic engineering revisited. Plant Sei 145:51-65, 1999.

104. E Shedletzky, M Shmuel, T Trainin, S Kaiman, D Delmer. Cell wall structure in cells adapted to growth on the cellulose-synthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichloro-benzonitrile. Plant Physiol 100:120-130, 1992.

105. E Zablackis, WS York, M Pauly, S Hantus, WD Reiter, CCS Chappie, P Albersheim, A Darvill. Substitution of l-fucose by l-galactose in cell walls of Arabidopsis muri. Science 272:1808-1810, 1996.

106. KV Sarkanen, CH Ludwig. Definition and nomenclature. In: KV Sarkanen, CH Ludwig, eds. Lignins: Occurrence, Formation, Structure, and Reactions. New York: Wiley, 1971, pp 1-18.

107. LG Wu, SP Joshi, VL Chiang. A xylem-specific cellulose synthase gene from aspen (Populus tremuloides) is responsive to mechanical stress. Plant J 22: 495-502, 2000.

108. TA Gorshkova, SE Wyatt, VV Salnikov, DM Gibeaut, MR Ibragimov, VV Lozovaya, NC Carpita. Cell-wall polysaccharides of developing flax plants. Plant Physiol 110:721-729, 1996.

109. S Oxenboll Sorensen, M Pauly, M Bush, Michael Skjot, MC McCann, B Borkhardt, P Ulvskov. Pectin engineering: modification of potato pectin by in vivo expression of an endo-l,4-/3-D-galactanase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:7639-7644, 2000.

110. AGJ Voragen. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates. Trends Food Sci Technol 9:328-335, 1998.

111. M Lahaye, B Kaeffer. Seaweed dietary fibres: structure, physicochemical and biological properties relevant to intestinal physiology. Sci Aliments 17:563584, 1997.

112. H Yamada. Contribution of pectins in health care. In: J Visser, AGJ Voragen, eds. Pectins and Pectinases. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996, pp 173-190.

113. MAV Axelos, C Gamier, CMGC Renard, JF Thibault. Heavy metals binding by pectins: selectivity, quantification and characterization. In: J Visser, AGJ Voragen, eds. Pectins and Pectinases. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996, pp 535540.

114. W Jing, PL DeAngelis. Dissection of the two transferase activities of the Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase: two active sites exist in one polypeptide. Glycobiology 10:883-889, 2000.

115. PL DeAngelis. Hyaluronan synthases: fascinating glycosyltransferases from vertebrates, bacterial pathogens, and algal viruses. Cell Mol Life Sci 56:670682, 1999.

116. WD Reiter, C Chappie, CR Somerville. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered cell wall polysaccharide composition. Plant J 12:335-345, 1997.

117. I Aliona, M Quinn, E Shoop, K Swope, SS Cyr, J Carlis, J Riedl, E Retzel, MM Campbell, R Sederoff, RW Whetten. Analysis of xylem formation in pine by cDNA sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:9693-9698, 1998.

118. F Sterky, S Regan, J Karlson, M Hertzberg, A Rohde, A Holmberg, B Amini, R Bhalerao, M Larsson, R Villaroel. Gene discovery in the wood-forming tissues of poplar: analysis of 5692 expressed sequence tags. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:13330-13335, 1998.

119. M Fagard, H Höfte, S Vemhette. Cell wall mutants. Plant Physiol Biochem 38:15-25, 2000.

120. W-D Reiter. The molecular analysis of cell wall components. Trends Plant Sci 3:27-32, 1998.

121. AJ Walhout, M Vidal. A genetic strategy to eliminate self-activator baits prior to high-throughput two-hybrid screens. Genome Res 9:1128-1134, 1999.

122. A Janshoff, M Neitzert, Y Oberdörfer, H Fuchs. Force spectroscopy of molecular systems—single molecule spectroscopy of polymers and biomole-cules. Angew Chem Int Ed 39:3212-3237, 2000.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Detox Diet Basics

Detox Diet Basics

Our internal organs, the colon, liver and intestines, help our bodies eliminate toxic and harmful  matter from our bloodstreams and tissues. Often, our systems become overloaded with waste. The very air we breathe, and all of its pollutants, build up in our bodies. Today’s over processed foods and environmental pollutants can easily overwhelm our delicate systems and cause toxic matter to build up in our bodies.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment