Hmw

subunits

Mixing time (seconds) 400

Figure 3 (A) Comparison of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles of total seed proteins from the background line L88-6 (control) and a transgenic line (B73-6-1) expressing additional gene copies for subunit 5. This results in an increase in the proportion of total HMW subunits from 12.7 to 20.5% and of subunit 5 from 2.7 to 10.7%. (B) The mixing time determined using a small-scale (2 g) Mixograph is a measure of dough strength. Blending of flour from the transgenic line B73-6-1 with flour from the normal bread wheat cultivar Banks results in increased mixing time (i.e., dough strength) up to about 60%, after which the dough becomes "overstrong" and the mixing time falls. (From Ref. 81.)

Figure 3 (A) Comparison of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles of total seed proteins from the background line L88-6 (control) and a transgenic line (B73-6-1) expressing additional gene copies for subunit 5. This results in an increase in the proportion of total HMW subunits from 12.7 to 20.5% and of subunit 5 from 2.7 to 10.7%. (B) The mixing time determined using a small-scale (2 g) Mixograph is a measure of dough strength. Blending of flour from the transgenic line B73-6-1 with flour from the normal bread wheat cultivar Banks results in increased mixing time (i.e., dough strength) up to about 60%, after which the dough becomes "overstrong" and the mixing time falls. (From Ref. 81.)

Expression of HMW subunit transgenes resulted in increased dough strength in a poor quality bread wheat line containing only two subunits (77) and also in pasta wheat (80) when the transgene levels were similar to those of the endogenous genes. However, very high level expression of a chromosome ID encoded subunit in a bread wheat line expressing five sub-units (81) or in pasta wheat (80) resulted in unusual mixing characteristics that were similar in some respects to those of "overstrong" varieties. In both cases the flour could be blended to increase the strength of a poor quality bread wheat flour (Fig. 3), indicating that such lines may be of commercial value for fortification of weak flours.

This work demonstrates that transformation with HMW subunits can be used to manipulate the functional properties of wheat flour, either to improve its quality for traditional end uses (bread, pasta, noodles) or to confer new properties for food (e.g., ingredients) or nonfood (e.g., packaging, films) applications. However, a deeper understanding of the relationships between the amounts, structures, and functional properties of proteins is required to allow changes to be specifically targeted. Furthermore, attention should be paid to other groups of glutenin subunits and gliadins in addition to the HMW subunits.

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