Figure 1 Plant cell bioreactor with instrumentation.

Although pH control is not always necessary in plant cell and tissue culture if a culture medium with an appropriate balance of N03 and NH4 is used, the pH of the cultivation is commonly monitored with a steam-ster-ilizable pH electrode. Dissolved oxygen and sometimes other gaseous metabolites (e.g., C02) are useful, but the monitoring and utilization during long-term cultivations often become problematic. Low respiration rates of cultured plant cell and tissue cultures make implementation of off-gas analysis difficult (26).

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