Plant Aroma Biotechnology

• Transgenic Plants

• "Pathway Elucidation'

• Enzyme Technology

• Transgenic Plants

• "Pathway Elucidation'

• Enzyme Technology

• Callus Culture

• Organ Culture

• Bioreactor Design

• In situ Product Recovery

• Immobilisation Techniques

• Callus Culture

• Organ Culture

• Bioreactor Design

• In situ Product Recovery

• Immobilisation Techniques

Figure 1 Research fields of plant aroma biotechnology.

industrial processes through manipulation of precursors, enzymes, and horticultural and storage conditions. Leahy and Roderick (4) and Takeoka (5) published comprehensive articles with numerous references on general and on fruit- and vegetable-specific principles of flavor genesis from nonvolatile precursors. The employment of stable isotope-labeled precursors to trace their integration in the target compounds or the modification of enzyme activities expanded the methodology for elucidation of biosynthetic pathways leading to fruit flavors (6). Last but not least, the recent advances in analytical chemistry vitally contribute to deepen our knowledge of biochemical pathways of aroma genesis and furthermore permit the detection of new powerful aroma compounds as potential target molecules for biotechnolog-ical processes (e.g., Ref. 7). Usually, only a few constituents of a complex plant flavor determine the overall flavor profile. Aroma dilution analysis combined with coupled gas chromatography—olfactometry aids in detecting these so-called character impact compounds. Only trace concentrations of an impact molecule are required to modify a flavor or fragrance composition.

The great potential of plant cell and tissue cultures for the production of food ingredients was emphasized by Fu et al. (8). Tremendous progress in the basic understanding of plant metabolic pathways and regulatory mechanisms and in the development of lucrative high-yielding cell lines has been made. In particular, the short culture periods in comparison with the whole plant and the facile accessibility of the genome are attractive merits. An exciting field of application is the bioconversion of externally applied substrates, which is facilitated by the saprophytic nature of most plant cell culture systems. The refinement of abundant agrochemicals from industrial waste streams to high-priced flavor compounds is within reach, as is the precise direction of the flavor profile by addition of potential aroma precursors. The use of plant cell cultures for flavor production has been reviewed by Scragg (9). As the overall secondary metabolite profile of callus and organ cultures may differ significantly from that of the parent plant, exhaustive application and safety considerations and, where necessary, safety testing have to be undertaken before the commercial use of cell culture extracts as food additives (10).

Far-reaching process developments are necessary to translate ideas from recombinant DNA technology and cell culture systems into industrial practice. Detailed economic considerations regarding the difficult interplay between technical and business factors may be found in the report of Goldstein (11). Process developments may comprise bioreactor design or the provision of an external accumulation site. The immobilization of cells or enzymes on solid supports may both increase production of secondary metabolites decisively and simplify product purification.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Natural Detox

Natural Detox

Are you looking for a full total body detox? If so, then you might want to try a 10 day detox or some refer to it as the 2-week detox. A 10-day detox is a full body detox that usually means taking several different steps to reach your total body transformation. It might involve a change in diet, exercise and more.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment