1. M Peferoen. Progress and prospects for field use of Bt genes in crops. Trends Biotechnol 15:173-177, 1997.
2. E Schnepf, N Crickmore, J Van Rie, D Lereclus, J Baum, J Feitelson, DR Zeigler, DH Dean. Bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62:775-806, 1998.
3. SS Gill, EA Cowles, PV Pietrantonio. The mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins. Annu Rev Entomol 37:615-636, 1992.
4. FJ Perlak, RL Fuchs, DA Dean, SL McPherson, DA Fishhoff. Modification of the coding sequence enhances plant expression of insect control protein genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:3324-3328, 1991.
5. JJ Estruch, NB Carozzi, N Desai, NB Duck, GW Warren, MG Koziel. Transgenic plants: an emerging approach to pest control. Nat Biotechnol 15:137141, 1997.
6. L Jouanin, M Bonade-Bottino, C Girard, G Morrot, M Giband. Transgenic plants for insect resistance. Plant Sci 131:1-11, 1998.
7. VA Hilder, D Boulter. Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance —a critical review. Crop Prot 18:177-191, 1999.
8. RA de Maagd, D Bosch, W Stiekema. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-mediated insect resistance in plants. Trends Plant Sci 4:9-13, 1999.
9. HC Sharma, KK Sharma, N Seetharama, R Ortiz. Prospects for using transgenic resistance to insects in crop improvement. Electron J Biotech [on-line], Vol 3 No 2, issue of August 15, 2000. Available at http://www.ejb.org/content/ vol3/issue2/full/3/
10. JT Odell, F Nagy, N-H Chua. Identification of DNA sequences required for activity of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Nature 313:810-812, 1985.
11. IK Vasil. Phosphinothricin resistant crops. In: SO Duke, ed. Herbicide Resistant Crops. New York: Lewis Publishers, 1996, pp 85-91.
12. RL Hudspeth, JW Grula. Structure and expression of the maize gene encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme involved in C4 photosynthesis. Plant Mol Biol 12:579-589, 1989.
13. JJ Estruch, S Kadwell, E Merlin, L Crossland. Cloning and characterization of a maize pollen-specific calcium-dependent calmodulin-independent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:8837-8841, 1994.
14. JE Carpenter, LP Gianessi. Agricultural biotechnology: updated benefit estimates. National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy (NCFAP), 2001, pp 1-46. Available at http://www.ncfap.org/pup/biotech/updatedbenefits.pdf
15. JE Carpenter. Case studies in benefits and risks of agricultural biotechnology: Roundup Ready soybeans and Bt field corn. National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy (NCFAP), 2001, pp 1-54. Available at http://www.ncfap. org/pup/biotech/benefitsandrisks.pdf
16. W Vogt. New biotech corn gets conditional clearance. Farm Prog, May 31, 2001.
17. T Nowatzki, J Oleson, J Tollefson, M Rice. Corn rootworm management update. 2000. Available at http://www.ent.iastate.edu/pest/rootworm/
18. DA Fischoff, RL Fuchs, PB Lavrik, SA McPherson, FJ Perlak. Genetically transformed plants with toxicity to Coleopteran pests—obtained using chimeric gene containing sequence encoding toxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. US patent 5,763,241, 1998.
19. D Ferber. New corn plant draws fire from GM food opponents. Science 287: 1370, 2000.
20. B Hibbard, LL Darrah, BD Barry. Combining ability of resistance leads and identification of a new resistance source for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae in corn. Maydica 44:133-139, 1999.
21. FJ Perlak, RW Deaton, TA Armstrong, RL Fuchs, SR Sims, JT Greenplate, DA Fischoff. Insect resistant cotton plants. Biotechnology 8:839-943, 1990.
22. JT Greenplate. Quantification of Bacillus thuringiensis insect control protein Cry 1 Ac over time in Bollgard cotton fruit and terminals. J Econ Entomol 92: 1377-1383, 1999.
23. J Fernandez-Cornejo, WD McBride. Genetically engineered crops for pest management in U.S. agriculture: farm level effects. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Economics Report 786, 2000. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer786/aer786.pdf
24. R Heimlich, J Fernandez-Cornejo, WD McBride, C Klotz-Ingram, S Jans, N Brooks. Genetically engineered crops: has adoption reduced pesticide use? Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Outlook/August 2000, 2000, pp 13-17. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/ publications/agoutlook/aug2000/ao273f.pdf
25. GP Fitt, CL Mares, DJ Llewellyn. Field evaluation and potential ecological impact of transgenic cottons (Gossypium hirstum) in Australia. Biocontrol Sci Technol 4:535-548, 1994.
26. B Pyke, ed. The performance of INGARD cotton in Australia during the 1999/ 2000 season. Cotton Research and Development Corporation (CRDC). CRDC Ocacasional Papers: Transgenics. Narrabri, NSW, Australia: CRDC, 2000.
27. H Holt. Season-long monitoring of transgenic cotton plants—development of an assay for the quantification of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein. Proceedings of the 9th Australian Cotton Conference, Broadbeach, Queensland, Australia, 1998, pp 331-335.
28. EJ Finnegan, DJ Llewellyn, GP Fitt. Expression of a Bt transgene in field grown cotton in Australia. In: PJ Larkin, ed. Agricultural Biotechnology: Laboratory, Field and Market. Proceedings 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Agricultural Biotechnology (Darwin, July 13-16, 1998), 1998, pp 225-227.
29. KM Olsen, JC Daly. Plant-toxin interactions in transgenic Bt-cotton and their effect on mortality of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Econ Entomol 93:1293-1299, 2000.
30. CM Tang, J Sun, XF Zhu, WZ Guo, TZ Zhang, JL Shen, CF Gao, WJ Zhou, ZX Chen, SD Guo. Inheritance of resistance to Helicoverpa armigera of three kinds of transgenic Bt strains available in upland cotton in China. Chin Sci Bull 45:363-367, 2000.
31. TH Zhang, CM Tang. Commercial production of transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton varieties and the resistance management for bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner). Chin Sci Bull 45:1249-1257, 2000.
32. FJ Perlak, TB Stone, YN Muskopf, LJ Petersen, GB Parker, SA McPherson, J Wyman, S Love, G Reed, D Biever, DA Fischoff. Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetle. Plant Mol Biol 22: 313-321, 1993.
33. P Reschke. Monsanto pulls plug on NatureMark spuds. Ontario Farmer, March 6, 2001.
34. BE Tabashnik. Evolution of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis. Annu Rev Entomol 39:47-79, 1994.
35. F Gould, A Martinez-Ramirez, A Anderson, J Ferre, FJ Silva, WJ Moar. Broad-spectrum resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Heliothis virescens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:7986-7988, 1992.
36. R Akhurst, B James, L Bird. Resistance to INGARD® cotton by the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Proceedings of the 10th Australian Cotton Conference, Broadbeach, Queensland, Australia, 2000.
37. YB Liu, BE Tabashnik, SK Meyer, Y Carriere, AC Baitlett. Genetics of pink bollworm resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin CrylAc. J Econ Entomol 94:248-252, 2001.
38. R Brousseau, L Massson, D Hegedus. Insecticidal transgenic plants: are they irresistible? AgBiotechNet 1:1-10, 1999. Available at http://www.agbios.com/ articles/abn022brousseau.htm
39. GP Fitt. An Australian approach to IPM in cotton: integrating new technologies to minimise insecticide dependence. Crop Prot 19:793-800, 2000.
40. D Saxena, S Flores, G Stotzky. Insecticidal toxin in root exudates from Bt-corn. Nature 402:480, 1999.
41. H Tapp, G Stotzky. Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 30:471-476, 1998.
42. A Hilbeck, M Baumgartner, PM Fried, F Bigler. Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environ Entomol 27:480-487, 1998.
43. JJ Losey, L Raynor, ME Cater. Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature 399:214, 1999.
44. FJ Perlak, RL Fuchs, DA Dean, SL McPherson, DA Fischoff, D Powell. Update: potential impacts of pollen from Bt-corn, 1999. http://www.plant. uoguelph .ca/ safefood/ gmoAjt-corn-update-nov99.htm
45. GW Warren. Vegetative insecticidal proteins: novel proteins for control of com pests. In: NB Carozzi, MG Koziel, eds. Advances in Insect Control: The Role of Transgenic Plants. New York: Taylor & Francis. 1997, pp 109-121.
46. JJ Estruch, GW Warren, MA Mullins, GJ Nye, JA Craig, MG Koziel. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran pests. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:53895394, 1996.
47. S Han, JA Craig, CD Putnam, NB Carozzi, JA Tainer. Evolution and mechanism from structures of an ADP-ribosylating toxin and NAD complex. Nat Struct Biol 6:932-936, 1999.
48. RK Bhatnagar. ICGEB Activity report 1999. Mammalian biology: insect resistance. International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, 1999. Available at http://www.icgeb.trieste.it/RESEARCH/ND/ Insectresistance99.htm
49. LMD Stewart, M Hirst, ML Ferber, AT Merryweather, PJ Cayley, RD Possee. Construction of an improved baculovirus insecticide containing an insect-specific toxin gene. Nature 352:85-88, 1991.
50. M Robins, M Le Page. Mean and green—does a deadly spider hold the key to eco-pesticides? New Sci 166:5, 2000.
51. AMR Gatehouse, JR Gatehouse. Identifying proteins with insecticidal activity: use of encoding genes to produce insect-resistant transgenic crops. Pestic Sci 52:165-175, 1998.
52. CA Ryan. Protease inhibitors in plants: genes for improving defences against insects and pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28:425-449, 1990.
53. A Mathews, DJ Llewellyn, Y Wu, ES Dennis. Isolation and characterisation of full-length cDNA clones of the giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza) trypsin/chy-motrypsin inhibitor. Plant Mol Biol 30:1035-1039, 1996.
54. Y Wu, DJ Llewellyn, A Mathews, ES Dennis. Adaptation of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to a proteinase inhibitor expressed in transgenic tobacco. Mol Breed 3:371-380, 1997.
55. RM Broadway. Dietary proteinase inhibitors alter complement of midgut proteases. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 32:39-53, 1996.
56. M Bonnade-Bottino, J Lerin, B Zaccomer, L Jouanin. Physiological adaptation explains the insensitivity of Baris coerulescens to transgenic oilseed rape expressing oryzacystatin I. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 29:131-138, 1999.
57. P Lara, F Ortego, E Gonzales-Hidalgo, P Castanera, P Carbonero, I Diaz. Adaptation of Spodoptera exigua to barley trypsin inhibitor BTI/Cme expressed in transgenic tobacco. Transgen Res 9:169-178, 2000.
58. D Xu, Q Xue, D McElroy, Y Mawal, VA Hilder, R Wu. Constitutive expression of a cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, CpTi, in transgenic rice confers resistance to two major rice insect pests. Mol Breed 2:167-173, 1996.
59. AH Atkinson, RL Heath, RJ Simpson, AE Clarke, MA Anderson. Proteinase inhibitors in Nicotiana alata are derived from a precursor protein which is processed into five homologous inhibitors. Plant Cell 5:203-213, 1993.
60. HJ Schirra, MJ Scanlon, MCS Lee, MA Anderson, DJ Craik. The solution structure of Cl-Tl, a two domain proteinase inhibitor from a circular precursor from Nicotiana alata. J Mol Biol 306:69-79, 2001.
61. RL Heath, G McDonald, JT Christeller, M Lee, K Bateman, J West, R Van-Heeswjick, MA Anderson. Proteinase inhibitors from Nicotiana alata enhance plant resistance to insect pests. J Insect Physiol 43:833-842, 1997.
62. JA Charity, MA Anderson, DJ Bittisnich, M Whitecross, TJV Higgins. Transgenic tobacco expressing a proteinase inhibitor from Nicotiana alata have increased insect resistance. Mol Breed 5:357-365, 1999.
63. M Chrispeels, M de Sa Grossi, TJV Higgins. Genetic engineering with a-amylase inhibitors makes seeds resistant to bruchids. Seed Sci Res 8:257263,1998.
64. RE Shade, HE Schroeder, JJ Pueyo, LM Tabe, LL Murdock, TJV Higgins, MJ Chrispeels. Transgenic pea seeds expressing the alpha amylase inhibitor of the common bean are resistant to bruchid beetles. Biotechnology 12:793-796, 1994.
65. HE Schroeder, S Gollasch, A Moore, LM Tabe, S Craig, DC Hardie, MJ Chrispeels, D Spencer, TJV Higgins. Bean alpha amylase inhibitor confers resistance to the pea weevil (Bruchis pisorum) in transgenic pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant Physiol 107:1233-1239, 1995.
66. RL Morton, HE Schroeder, KS Bateman, MJ Chrispeels, E Armstrong, LM Tabe, TJV Higgins. Bean a-amylase inhibitor 1 in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) provides complete protection from pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under field conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:3820-3825, 2000.
67. A Pusztai, G Grant, S Bardocz, R Alonso, MJ Chrispeels, HE Schroeder, LM Tabe, TJV Higgins. Expression of the insecticidal bean a-amylase inhibitor transgene has minimal detrimental effect on the nutritional value of peas fed to rats at 30% of the diet. J Nutr 129:1597-1603, 1999.
68. M Ishimoto, T Sato MJ, Chrispeels, K Kitamura. Bruchid resistance of transgenic azuki bean expressing seed alpha amylase inhibitor of common bean. Entomol Exp Appl 79:309-315, 1996.
69. Y Rahbe, N Sauvion, G Febvay, WJ Peumans, AMR Gatehouse. Toxicity of lectins and processing of ingested proteins in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Entom Exp Appl 76:143-155, 1995.
70. VA Hilder, KS Powell, AMR Gatehouse, JA Gatehouse, Y Shi, WDO Hamilton, A Merryweather, CA Newell, JC Timans, WJ Peumans, E Damme, D Boulter,
E Van Damme. Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids. Transgen Res 4:18-25, 1995.
71. ZB Wang, SD Guo. Expression of two insect-resistant genes CrylA (b&c)/ GNA in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against both cotton boll worm and aphids. Chin Sci Bull 44:2051-2058, 1999.
72. SB Maqbool, S Riazuddin, NT Loc, AMR Gatehouse, JA Gatehouse, P Chris-tou. Expression of multiple insecticidal genes confers broad resistance against a range of different rice pests. Mol Breed 7:85-93, 2001.
73. D Boulter, GA Edwards, AMR Gatehouse, JA Gatehouse, VA Hilder. Additive protective effects of different plant derived insect resistance genes in transgenic tobacco plants. Crop Prot 9:351-354, 1990.
74. AMR Gatehouse, GM Davison, CA Newell, A Merryweather, WDO Hamilton, EPJ Burgess, RJC Gilbert, JR Gatehouse. Transgenic potato plants with enhanced resistance to the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea: growth room trials. Transgen Res 3:49-63, 1997.
75. TH Czapla. Plant lectins as insect control proteins in transgenic plants. In: NB Carozzi, MG Koziel, eds. Advances in Insect Control: The Role of Transgenic Plants. New York: Taylor & Francis. 1997, pp 123-138.
76. ANE Birch, IE Geoghegan, MEN Majerus, JW McNicol, CA Hackett, AMR Gatehouse, JA Gatehouse. Tri-trophic interactions involving pest aphids, predatory 2-spot ladybirds and transgenic potatoes expressing snowdrop lectin for aphid resistance. Mol Breed 5:75-83, 1999.
77. RE Down, L Ford, SD Woodhouse, RJM Raemaekers, B Leitch, JA Gatehouse, AMR Gatehouse. Snowdrop lectin (GNA) has no acute toxic effects on a beneficial insect predator, the 2-spot ladybird (Adalia bipunctata L.). J Insect Physiol 46:379-391, 2000.
78. HA Bell, EC Fitches, GC Marris, J Bell, JP Edwards, JA Gatehouse, AMR Gatehouse. Transgenic GNA expressing potato plants augment the beneficial biocontrol of Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) by the parasitoid Eulophus pennicornis (Hymenoptera; Eulohidae). Transgen Res 10:35-42, 2001.
79. EE Hood, DR Witcher, S Maddock, T Meyer, C Baszczynski, M Bailey, P Flynn, J Register, L Marshall, D Bond, E Kulisek, A Kusnadi, R Evangelista, Z Nikolov, C Wooge, RJ Mehigh, R Hernan, WK Kappel, D Ritland, CP Li, JA Howard. Commercial production of avidin from transgenic maize: characterization of transformant, production, processing, extraction and purification. Mol Breed 3:291-306,1997.
80. KJ Kramer, TD Morgan, JE Throne, M Bailey, JA Howard. Transgenic maize expressing avidin is resistant to storage pests. Nat Biotechnol 18:670-674, 2000.
81. Z Shen, DR Corbin, JT Greenplate, RJ Grebenok, DW Galbraith, JP Purcell. Studies on the mode of action of cholesterol oxidase on insect midgut membranes. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 34:429-442, 1997.
82. DR Corbin, JT Greenplate, EY Wong, JP Purcell. Cloning of an insecticidal cholesterol oxidase and its expression in bacteria and plant protoplasts. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:4239-4244, 1994.
83. S Chilton. Genetic engineering of plant secondary metabolism for insect protection. In: NB Carozzi, MG Koziel, eds. Advances in Insect Control: The Role of Transgenic Plants. New York: Taylor & Francis, 1997, pp 237-269.
84. J George, HP Bais, GA Ravishankar. Biotechnological production of plant-based insecticides. Crit Rev Biotechnol 20:49-77, 2000.
85. JC Thomas, DG Adams, CL Nessler, JK Brown, HJ Bohnert. Tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine, and reproduction of the whitefly. Plant Physiol 109: 717-720, 1995.
86. G Guillet, J Poupart, J Basurco, V De Luca. Expression of tyryptophan decarboxylase and tyrosine decarboxylase genes in tobacco results in altered biochemical and physiological phenotypes. Plant Physiol 122:933-944, 2000.
87. KN Yao, VD Luca, N Brisson. Creation of a metabolic sink for tryptophan alters the phenylpropanoid pathway and the susceptibility of potato to Phy-tophthora infestans. Plant Cell 7:1787-1799, 1995.
88. S Chavadej, N Brisson, JN McNeil, VD Luca. Redirection of tryptophan leads to production of low indole glucosinolate canola. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 91: 2166-2170, 1994.
89. A Smigocki, JW Neal, I McCanna, L Douglass. Cytokinin-mediated insect resistance in Nicotiana plants transformed with the ipt gene. Plant Mol Biol 23:325-335, 1993.
90. A Smigocki, S Heu, G Buta. Analysis of insecticidal activity in transgenic plants carrying the ipt plant growth hormone gene. Acta Physiol Plant 22:295299, 2000.
91. R Hain, HJ Reif, E Ktause, R Langebartels, H Kindl, B Vornam, W Wiese, E Schmelzer, PH Schreier, RH Stocker, K Stenzel. Disease resistance results from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant. Nature 361:153-156, 1993.
92. R Fischer, I Budde, R Hain. Stilbene synthase gene expression causes changes in flower colour and male sterility in tobacco. Plant J 11:489-498, 1997.
93. JE Thomzik, K Stenzel, R Stocker, PH Schreier, R Hain, DJ Stahl. Synthesis of a grapevine phytoalexin in transgenic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) conditions resistance against Phytophthora infestans. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 51:265-278, 1997.
Was this article helpful?