Vocuole

peroxidase serpentine « » ajmalicine <

bisindole /catharanthine.

alkaloids vindoline <

peroxidase cytosol deacetylvindoline ^ DAT vindoline cytosol deacetylvindoline ^ DAT vindoline strictosidine

catharanthine dehydro geissoschizme strictosidine

»catharantliine I

catharanthine dehydro geissoschizme tetrahydroaistonine

Figure 2 Subcellular compartmentation of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus. AS, anthranilate synthase; CR, NADPH:cath-enamine reductase; DAT, deacetylvindoline 17-O-acetyltransferase; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; G10H, geraniol 10-hydroxylase; GAP, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate; D4H, desacetoxyvindoiine-4-hydroxylase; MEP; 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate; NMT, S-adenosyl-L-methionine methoxy-2,16-dihydro-16-hydroxytabersonine-A/-methyltransferase; SGD, strictosidine /3-glucosidase; STR, strictosidine synthase; TDC, tryptophan decarboxylase; THAS, NADPH: tetrahydroaistonine reductase. Solid arrows represent a single enzymatic step and dashed arrows represent multiple enzyme steps.

dine, the pivotal intermediate of the TIAs (Fig. 3). The properties of TDC and STR from C. roseus are listed in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

A number of enzymes of the TIA biosynthetic pathway have been characterized and the encoding genes have been cloned. This has enabled studies of the overexpression of these genes in various plants and organisms. There are some valuable examples of what metabolic engineering can

Indole pathway Terpenoid pathway

(Shikimate pathway) (MEP pathway)

Indole pathway Terpenoid pathway

(Shikimate pathway) (MEP pathway)

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