Source: PHLS CDSC.

Source: PHLS CDSC.

and recent fatal cases in Swiss, American and German travellers are a reminder of the potential risk in this part of the world. The Aedes mosquito is a vector for both dengue and yellow fever. Although yellow fever is confined to South America and Africa, there is concern the infection could spread, via infected travellers, to other continents such as India, where the Aedes mosquito is also present. There have also been several outbreaks of Ebola fever in central Africa since the large epidemic in Kiwit, Zaire in 1995, although travellers have not so far been affected.

Nipah virus

In 1999 a previously unrecognised paramyxovirus, now called Nipah virus, was identified as the cause of a large outbreak of febrile encephalitic and respiratory illness in Malaysia and Singapore (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999). The apparent source of infection in humans is exposure to pigs. The method of transmission is not yet known, although human-to-human spread has not been demonstrated. The risk, if any, to travellers is unknown at present.

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