World War I Ebooks Catalog
A third cultural factor that helped to shape Jung's psychology was the widespread feeling of disillusionment and betrayal that followed World War I (1914-18). People who had committed themselves to scientific research instead of religion were forced to recognize that the technological and theoretical advances that had taken place toward the end of the nineteenth century had been exploited for military purposes. People who had trusted the political ideals of socialism and Communism felt betrayed by the events of the postwar period the dictatorship of Stalin in the Soviet Union, the collapse of democracy in Germany and the rise of the Nazi party, the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, and the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). The substitutes for religious faith had not lived up to their promises.
By the time World War II started, Freud was famous, and the psychoanalytic movement was well established. Internal conflict between Freud and key members of the Psychoanalytic Society had resulted in the resignation of several important figures, including Jung and Adler. The society had resettled by the beginning of the Second World War. The most significant event for Freud and the psychoanalytic movement during this time occurred in March 1938, when the German Nazis invaded Austria. The event forced Freud to flee to England and fragmented the Psychoanalytic Society for several years. It also marked a turning point for Freud as he began to recede into the background of the movement and allowed others, his daughter Anna in particular, to assume greater leadership over the direction the movement would take.
Although Lewin was not eager to go to war, he volunteered to serve in the Kaiser's army after World War I broke out in 1914. He had already completed the requirements for his doctorate, but the degree itself was not conferred until 1916. Lewin served throughout most of the war, working his way up to the rank of lieutenant. He was wounded in 1917 and hospitalized, but his younger brother Fritz was killed in action. While Lewin was recovering, he published his first journal article, Kriegslandschaft or War Landscape, which was a preview of several of the concepts he developed in his later work, such as life space, boundary, and zone. That same year, he married Maria Landsberg, a close friend of his best friend's wife. Maria taught English and German in a high school for girls.
The First World War created a significant uproar in Europe as it was sparked by the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand in Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian attempt to punish the Serbs for the assassination instigated a series of threats and counter-threats by the European powers. Eventually almost all of Europe became involved in a war that lasted far longer than anyone had expected and resulted in the defeat of the Central Powers and the destruction of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Triage is a system developed in World War I. It is the medical practice of dividing the wounded into survival categories to concentrate medical resources on those who could truly benefit from them and to ignore those who would die, even with treatment, or survive even without it. This practice has been advocated to allocate scarce food supplies. Wealthy countries should help only the most promising of the poorer countries since spreading precious resources too thin could jeopardize chances for survival of the strong as well as the weak. If we can grow more food, then this system does not need to be put into effect. In this book, we seek a better understanding of movement of water through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, or SPAC (Philip, 1966), because of the prime importance of water in plant growth.
This situation was bound to change between 1945 and 1950 through still another approach to assess metabolic events. Right after World War II, low-energy radioactive tracers, especially 35S, 32P, 14C, and 3H, became available for research to a wider scientific public as a byproduct of expanding reactor technology. The ensuing new attack on the mechanism of protein synthesis by way of radioactive amino acids was embedded in a particular, historical conjuncture of interests that benefitted greatly from the vast resources made available for cancer research after the War 59 , and from the efforts of the American Atomic Energy Commission to demonstrate the potentials of a peaceful use of radioactivity 60, 61 . In fact, cancer research programs provided the background for much of the protein synthesis research during those years. Cancer was related to abnormal growth, and growth was considered to be intimately linked with the metabolism of proteins. This constellation also explains why much...
Improved anaesthetic techniques and the introduction of antibiotics were important factors that have allowed more complex surgical procedures to be developed in the 20th century. The search for more sophisticated instruments and suture materials for vascular surgery began in the 1940s, in response to the large number of vascular injuries that occurred during the World War II. Clinical success rates in major vascular surgery significantly improved at this point, although the repair of peripheral vessels, smaller than 2-3 mm in diameter, was still associated with a high incidence of intravascular thrombosis.
Epidemics of jaundice have been reported for many centuries and the term 'infectious hepatitis' was coined in 1912 to describe these outbreaks. The term 'hepatitis type A' was adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1973 to describe this form of hepatitis, and the virus was visualised by electron microscopy in human faecal extracts in the same year. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is spread by the faecal-oral route. It remains endemic throughout the world and is hyperendemic in areas with poor standards of sanitation and hygiene. Since the end of World War II in 1945, the seroprevalence of antibodies to HAV has declined in many countries. Infection results most commonly from person-to-person contact, but large epidemics do occur. For example, in 1988, an outbreak of hepatitis A associated with the consumption of raw clams in Shanghai resulted in almost 300 000 cases.
In 1917-18, psychologists administered IQ tests to tens of thousands of World War I military conscripts and concluded that white Anglo Saxons were of superior intelligence compared with other ethnic and racial groups. Princeton professor and eugenicist Carl C. Brigham, in a 1923 paper, A Study of American Intelligence, published a racial analysis of the findings of the IQ tests. He concluded that racial mixing had contributed to a decline in American education. Such studies were used to enforce racist immigration quotas with the intent of protecting white Americans from degeneration. After World War I, the former military testing psychologists, now called psychometric psychologists, began testing students at all levels in the educational system. These examiners were white, and whites supplied the standards by which all Americans were measured, according to Robert V. Guthrie, in his book, Even the Rat was White. Significant numbers of psychological studies during the 1920s and 1930s...
The society resignations were quickly overshadowed by the beginning of the First World War in 1914, which was a major setback for the movement and its members. Freud was too old to fight, but his three sons, Martin, Oliver, and Ernst were all drafted. They eventually returned without loss of life or major injury.
If Freud's theories could be broken down to a belief that biology shaped us, it was Fromm's conviction that society made us who we are. Fromm's ideas would validate and enhance the theories Horney was already developing, as her ideas would nourish and enhance Fromm's work. Fromm is often described as a melding of Marx and Freud, and indeed, both men were his mentors. Fromm was born in Frankfurt, Germany, of Orthodox Jewish parents. Like Horney, his childhood memories were less than idyllic, containing a moody, business-obsessed father and a depressed mother. The suicide of a beautiful woman, a friend of the Fromm family, and the insanity he perceived in Germany related to World War I were the motivations for Erich to become interested in the workings of the human mind. By 1922, he, like Horney, was working as a psychotherapist. But by 1934, Fromm could see what lay ahead for Germany as well as both Jews and Communists, the two identities he shared. He came to the United States as a...
Bar-Gal, David, Martin Gold, and Miriam Lewin, eds. The Heritage of Kurt Lewin Theory, Research, and Practice. New York Plenum Press, 1992. Published with the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Includes a bibliography. De Rivera, Joseph, comp. Field Theory as Human-Science Contributions of Lewin's Berlin Group. New York Gardner Press, 1976. An English translation of research conducted by Lewin and his students when Lewin was at the University of Berlin. Lewin, Kurt. A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York McGraw-Hill, 1959. Lewin's first major English work, consisting of a translation of many of his first papers published in Germany. _. Group Decision and Social Change. In Readings in Social Psychology, edited by Theodore M. Newcomb and Eugene L. Hartley. New York Holt, 1958. Describes how Lewin changed food preferences during World War II, providing an excellent example of how to apply field theory to practical problems. _. Resolving Social Conflicts and, Field...
Shortly after World War II, similar programs emerged in Canada (Cameron, 1947, 1956) and the United Kingdom (Bierer, 1948). Cameron, who established a program at the Allen Memorial Institute of Psychiatry in Montreal in 1946, is generally credited with introducing the term day hospital to describe this emerging treatment modality (Luber, 1979). In the United States, programs were reported at the Yale University Clinic and the Menninger Clinic as early as 1948. Many of these early programs were organized from a psychoanalytic perspective, emphasizing individual and group therapy as well as expressive therapies such as art and dance. These pre-deinstitutionalization programs provided services to patients who were generally less symptomatic and less disabled than those relegated to continued institutionalization. Possibly, these healthier patients were deemed more appropriate for an insight-oriented therapeutic approach.
At the other end of the scale, disease with long incubation periods may not be recognised as travel-related by either the patient or physician. Hepatitis B transmitted by tattoo during an overland trip through Asia might not cause illness until 6 months later. The increased risk of tuberculosis in immigrants persists for at least 5 years after arrival in Britain (Ormerod, 2000) and the clinical incubation period of symptomatic leprosy is several years. We have seen patients with colonic bleeding due to schistosomiasis presenting for the first time 10 years after travel to Africa. Some infections can persist for many years, such as strongyloidiasis, which we still see in ex-prisoners of war who worked over 50 years ago on the Thai-Burma railway during World War II (Gill and Bell, 1979 Archibald et al., 1993). Knowledge of the biology of the pathogen can also be integrated with the detailed travel history to recognise the limitation of investigation at different phases of the illness.
After World War I, the new Social Democratic government of Austria gave Adler the task of developing a system of youth guidance clinics throughout the nation. Each child age six to fourteen was screened, then counseled, if necessary. In the 1920's, the rates of crime and mental disorders among young people declined dramatically.
The most telling application of the theory of individual psychology to prejudice occurred in the first part of the twentieth century in Germany. The rise of Nazi anti-Semitism can be associated with the humiliating German defeat in World War I and with the deplorable conditions brought about by hyperinflation and depression. Adolf Hitler first blamed the Jews for the November treason which brought about the defeat of the German army. (This private logic allowed the German people to believe that their defeated army would have achieved an all-out victory at the front had it not been for the Jewish traitors back in Berlin.) All the problems of capitalism and social inequality were laid at the feet of Jewish financiers, and every fear of rabble-rousing Communists was associated with Jewish radicals. Because everything bad, weak, cowardly, or exploitive was labeled 'Jewish, non-Jewish Germans could believe that they themselves were everything good. The result of the institutionalization of...
When the current gaps in public health and health care are considered in the context of an incident involving a weapon of mass destruction (WMD), preparedness and response capabilities take on even greater importance. Tactical nuclear weapons, possibly obtainable in Western Europe, could destroy much of the human and physical infrastructure relied upon for a response effort therefore, for local responders to provide even a minimal level of care for mass casualties, federal and state governments must provide supplemental assets. While the United States is clearly vulnerable to such an attack, some officials, not understanding the seriousness of the threat, do not believe that the risk
Freud and his disciples tend to look at their patients from the outside inward, trying to understand their patients' distorted view of reality. Conversely, Gestalt therapists do their best to go inside their patients and look outward, viewing the world from the person's internal vision of things. Early in the twentieth century, prior to World War I, German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka began to perform experiments on monkeys and other animals and apply the results to human beings. In one experiment, researchers placed a banana (the reward) in an unreachable but visible place outside of the laboratory monkey's cage. If the monkey was given a sufficient number of sticks, Gestalt researchers learned that the creature would figure out how to assemble the sticks in order to successfully get hold of the banana. This outcome made Gestalt therapists believe that human beings, too, were innately capable of reasoning their way toward goals or solving problems....
If life is common and it commonly leads to the evolution of intelligent creatures that have long, prosperous planetary tenures, then it is possible that enlightened aliens might be beaming signals off into space. A key factor in deciding whether SETI makes sense involves the lifetime of civilizations with radio technology. Does such a civilization last only centuries before nuclear war, starvation, or some other calamity causes its decline Or does it last forever In the most optimistic minds, Star Trek societies might populate the stars. But even if they do, it is a real question whether any of them would or could beam enormous amounts of radio power into space to potential audiences that are prevented by the vast interstellar distances from ever returning the message in a timely manner. There probably are other civilizations in the galaxy that have radio telescopes, but the vast numbers of stars and the vast distances involved are barriers that may always keep SETI more an...
Hemodialysis is an area of long-standing interest to pharmacologists. The pioneer American pharmacologist, John Jacob Abel, can be credited with designing the first artificial kidney (1). He conducted extensive studies in dogs to demonstrate the efficacy of hemodialysis in removing poisons and drugs. European scientists were the first to apply this technique to humans, and Kolff sent a rotating-drum artificial kidney to the United States when the Second World War ended (2, 3). Repetitive use of hemodial-ysis for treating patients with chronic renal failure finally was made possible by the development of techniques for establishing long-lasting vascular access in the 1960s. By the late 1970s, continuous peritoneal dialysis had become a therapeutic alternative for these patients and offered the advantages of simpler, non-machine-dependent home therapy and
Ernest Walker (1870-1952) working in Manila, The Philippines, between 1910 and 1913 again suggested that there were two forms of E. histolytica, one pathogenic and the other not. During the First World War (1914-1918), C. M. Wenyon (1878-1948), working in Alexandria, emphasised the importance of the 'carrier state'. Clifford Dobell (1886-1949) published his classic monograph, The Amoebae Living in Man, in 1919.
We've seen that the frequency and impact of disasters vary across the globe, but what about other forms of traumatic stress, for instance, violence Certainly, by almost any formal measure of violence, there are some ethnocultural contexts or societies that are more violent than others, especially when it comes to war. The IFRC estimates that approximately 40 million people have been killed in wars and conflicts since World War II. Developing countries, again, experience a disproportionate number of wars. There is also the usual consequence of refugees in war-torn regions with its high levels of distress due to displacement. Violent deaths appear to be a more common and prevalent cause of death in developing countries.
In order to have a scenario where stimulated emission predominated, a population inversion of more excited atoms or molecules than unexcited ones had to be produced. Charles H. Townes (Fig. 1.2) was the first to manufacture such a functioning prototype which produced microwaves, thus the first MASER microwave amplified stimulated emission of radiation. He had been involved with radar in World War II and became interested in microwaves (21). Townes had first thought of the mechanism for amplification of the radiation on a park bench in Franklin Park in Washington in April 1951 (21,23). Also, in 1951 the Russian physicist V. A. Fabrikant applied for a Soviet patent on amplifying stimulated emission but it was not published until 1959 and did not influence the course of American laser physics (21). In the USA in 1953 Joseph Weber was the first to propose stimulated emission. Townes' research group recognized in 1953 (23-25) that ammonia molecules in the ground state would be attracted by...
The potential of cruciate ligament reconstruction received widespread attention as a result of trauma during World War I, when the first attempts at artificial ligaments appeared. This focus was not revisited until the 1970s, which was followed by a period of intense activity that peaked in the mid-1980s (Fig. 1). A rapid collapse of the use of these devices arose in the early 1990s. Because of the many different approaches pursued during that time, it would be confusing to discuss events in a chronological order thus, this review describes the individual materials used to fabricate artificial ligaments.
Ostracods (Fig. 2.5D) are small crustaceans enclosed in a clam-like chitinous carapace. The luciferin of Cypridina (also called Vargula) was one of the first to be crystallized and chemically characterized (Kishi et al. 1966 Shimomura et al. 1957). Also known as seed shrimp or firefleas, ostracods are the source of one of the most famous anecdotes about bioluminescence. During World War II, the Japanese army collected massive quantities of ostracods and dried them on tarps on the shore. These stockpiles were to be used as a chemical illumination system. A small handful produces a steady glow when moistened and crushed in the palm. Even 60 years later, these dried crustaceans, stored in jars labeled Japan 1944 , will produce light when macerated. Ostracods dispense luciferin and luciferase into the seawater from nozzles near their mouth, forming discrete puffs of light. In some types, these puffs form a specific sequence of glowing or flashing dots that identify males to females of the...
He was the recipient of many awards, including honorary Doctor of Science degrees from the Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa in 1952, and later in life, from his alma mater, Utah State University. He was Fellow of the American Society of Agronomy and won its Stevenson Award in 1949. He was president of the Soil Science Society of America (1952) and the American Society of Agronomy (1965). In recognition of his military contributions during World War II, he received the U.S. Department of Navy Ordnance Development Award in 1945 and the Presidential Certificate of Merit in 1948. He received the USDA Superior Service Award in 1959 and honorary membership in the International Society of Soil Science in 1968. In 1981, the American Geophysical Union organized a symposium on the impact of the Richards's (1931) equation, to honor the fiftieth anniversary of his influential publication in Physics (American Society of Agronomy, 1993). He was a long-time member of the American Geophysical...
Seemed to shed new light on core psychoanalytic concepts, such as repetition compulsion, the rule of abstinence, and the working through of central conflicts in transference. Among other things, we showed that the focus concept of psychoanalysis can be described very precisely by a memory structure that resembled Schank's TOP, the thematic organization point 60 . We showed that the psychoanalytical concept of a focus, as illustrated by the triangle of insight (Fig. 1) connecting analogous structures of an current conflict with those discovered in the transference and biographical information, corresponds in detail to Schank's TOP. We illustrated this hypothesis by analyzing some information from the psychoanalysis of a severely depressed woman. We found analogous components in the current conflict situation (feeling exploited by her husband), the transference (being convinced that her analyst would only be interested in pursuing her own goals, e.g., earning money), and a traumatic...
In the 1930s Japanese scientists succeeded in obtaining impure crystals of two fungal growth-active compounds, which they termed gibberellin A and B, but because of communication barriers and World War II, the information did not reach the West. Not until the mid-1950s did two groups one at the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) research station at Welyn in Britain, the other at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Peoria, Illinois succeed in elucidating the structure of the material that they had purified from fungal culture filtrates, which they named gibberellic acid
Terman and Goddard had introduced intelligence testing to America. Soon, world events would turn it into a national priority. In 1917, the year after Terman first published the Stanford-Binet, the United States entered World War I. Like many other Americans, psychologist Robert Yerkes was eager to serve his country. As president of the American Psychological Association, he also wanted show the value of the young science he represented. Yerkes set up committees to explore the military uses of psychology. He made himself chairman of a committee that was charged with developing an intelligence test for matching military recruits to the right jobs. Terman and Goddard were included among the other psychologists named to the committee.
Whether Gestalt ideas would have thrived, declined, or died a natural death, as so many theories of mental health have, across the rest of the world prior to World War II is unknown. (Gestalt ideas certainly have neither declined nor died a natural death as of today. It is still a popular and widely accepted concept in most areas of the world.) The rise of Adolph Hitler and the Nazis forced those responsible for Gestalt theory to escape to the United States in order to survive. This immigration essentially brought Wertheimer, K hler, and Koffka's ideas to the forefront of American psychology. At first the difficulty of translating Gestalt's complicated context to English slowed its acceptance in America, as did the suspicion that Gestalt was more philosophy than psychology. Yet another common criticism that found its way to Gestalt psychology's door was recurrent reports that further attempts at replicating Kohler's World War I research with primates in the Canary Islands had not...
Learned helplessness has also been observed in humans. Seligman refers to Bruno Bettelheim's descriptions of some of the inmates of the Nazi concentration camps during World War II, who, when faced with the incredible brutality and hopelessness of their situation, gave up and died without any apparent physical cause. Many institutionalized patients (for example, nursing home residents and the chronically ill) also live in environments that are stressful because they have little control over them. Seligman suggests that the stress levels of such patients can be lowered and their health improved if they are given as much control as possible over their everyday activities (such as choosing what they want for breakfast, the color of their curtains, and whether to sleep late or wake up early).
An assessment centre is not a physical place but is a suite of exercises designed to assess a set of personal characteristics. Their use dates back to the Second World War when the British War Office developed them to select people with officer potential from within the ranks. Nowadays they are used quite commonly in medium to large size companies not only for job selection, specifically graduate selection or managerial appointments, but also increasingly in internal promotion and development of staff for managerial careers, when they are more often called development centres A-8 .
During the years of World War II, Piaget's work was not easily available outside of Switzerland. His ideas, though well accepted in Europe, were not often heard in American universities, where the behaviorist theories of human development dominated. None of his books was translated into English for the nearly 20 years between 1932 and 1950. In 1942 he lectured at the College of France during the time of the Nazi occupation. These lectures were compiled into his book, The Psychology of Intelligence, published in 1963.
In Oskar, she said in a letter at the time, I found everything I consciously wished for. By all accounts, Oskar Horney's political beliefs could minimally be called right wing while Karen, though never overly involved in politics, was rather liberal. But in October of 1909 these two opposites were married and moved to Berlin. It would soon be evident that she had indeed married her father. Oskar Horney was every bit as harsh a disciplinarian and as unfeeling a man as her father had been. In Berlin her new husband quickly found employment with a man named Stinnes. Stinnes owned a giant German industrial conglomerate most noted at the time for its cruel squashing of a strike in the Stinnes coalmines the year before. The newlyweds initially lived in a boarding house, but soon, thanks to Oskar's early and frequent promotions, they were able to upgrade their living accommodations to their own apartment in a middle-class section of Lankwitz, a suburb of Berlin. They quickly began to lead...
By his sophomore year, Clark had switched his major to psychology. He was influenced by Professor Sumner, the first black American psychologist. Sumner was an Arkansas born scholar and World War I infantry veteran. He began his teaching career at Howard in 1928 and built the psychology department there into the foremost program for the training of African-American psychologists.
Explanation Wertheimer did not immediately comprehend all the implications of his initial study. After the publication of his 1912 paper, Wertheimer became actively involved in the German war effort during World War 1. This meant that much of the time from 1914 to 1920 was devoted to research and development on subjects other than Gestalt theory. It was not until 1923 that Wertheimer published a tract further enlarging upon his ideas about perception and perceptual grouping. In reality, what he attempted to do was to look at what the human mind actually does as opposed to what it might be doing.
P-Haemolytic streptococci of Lancefield groups A, B, C and G remain exquisitely sensitive to penicillin and other P-lactams, but resistance to sulphonamides and tetracyclines has been recognised since the Second World War. Penicillin has, therefore, always been the drug of choice for most infections caused by P-haemolytic streptococci, but macrolide compounds, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin, have been good alternatives in penicillin-allergic patients.
The diet of Japanese men has changed to include foods with high fat and protein compositions since World War II. A diet of 25 reduced fat and the same total calories caused a 10 decrease in serum testosterone of healthy volunteers.77 Isoflavonoids (genistein and daidzein) derived from soybean and green tea gallates (epigallocatechin-3-gallate and epicatechin-3-gallate) are favorite foods for Oriental men, and are also 5a-reductase inhibitors.78'79 7-Linolenic acid,80 eicosapentaenoic acid,81 and free fatty acids82 are also inhibitors. Ingested foods may influence androgen metabolism, and consequently the incidence of prostate cancer.
The meaning of information is constructed in a narrative process or stories that we tell ourselves to others, as well as to ourselves (Meichenbaum & Fitzpatrick, 1993, p. 707). Narrative psychology is the study of such stories. We make sense and meaning of the world in terms of such stories. Victor Frankl was a famous psychologist and survivor of a Nazi concentration camp in World War II. In his book Man's Search for Meaning, Frankl spoke of the importance of finding meaning in life as crucial to both physical and psychological survival, but implicit in his work was the idea that meaning could be derived almost despite the adverse circumstances in which one finds himself. Meichenbaum and Fitzpatrick (1993) proposed that meaning making through narrative often occurs in response to disruptions in a person's routine and when reacting or adjustment is necessary, especially when their physical or psychological well-being is judged to be at stake (p. 708). Stressful events or traumatic...
The most important application of developmental theory generally, however, lies in its contribution to the improved understanding of human nature. Such an understanding has considerable real-world importance. For example, among other factors, an extreme faith in the nature side of the nature-nurture controversy led German dictator Adolf Hitler to the assumption that entire races were, by their nature, inferior and therefore should be exterminated. His actions, based on this belief, led to millions of human deaths during World War II. Thus, one can see that developmental theories, especially if inadequately understood, may have sweeping applications in the real world.
Field theory was born on the battlefields of World War I. Lewin served as a soldier in the German army. His first published article was titled The War Landscape, and it described the battlefield in terms of life space. The soldier's needs determined how the landscape was to be perceived. When the soldier was miles from the front, the peaceful landscape seemed to stretch endlessly on all sides without direction. As the war front approached, the landscape took on direction, and peaceful objects such as rocks and trees became elements of battle, such as weapons and places to hide.
Van der Waals combined the determination of cohesion in the theory of capillarity by Laplace (1749-1827) with the kinetic theory of gases, and this led to the conception of the continuity of the liquid and gaseous states. He arrived at an equation that was the same for all substances by using the values of the volume, temperature, and pressure divided by their critical values (Preece, 1971). His work enabled the liquefaction of gases, which had important practical application during World War I (1914-1918). Although others had studied liquefaction of gases, it was van der Waals who was the first to treat the subject of the continuity of gases and liquids from the standpoint of the mathematical theory of gases (Cajori, 1929, pp. 210-211). Van der Waals was awarded the 1910 Nobel Prize in physics for his research on the equations of state for gases and fluids. He died in Amsterdam on March 9, 1923.
After completing her doctoral dissertation and graduating with a Ph.D., Ainsworth continued on at the University of Toronto as a lecturer beginning in the fall of 1939. Shortly thereafter with the advent of World War II, many of her Toronto colleagues and mentors left the University to assist in the war effort. Ainsworth herself joined them in 1942, enlisting in the Canadian Women's Army Corps. She first served as an army examiner in Kitchener, Ontario, using her background in psychology and personality development to work in personnel selection, which involved interviewing and assessing recruits and recommending a placement based on the results. After several months in Kitchener, Ainsworth transferred to Ottawa, where she attained the rank of major in less than a year. She also spent several months abroad working with the personnel service of the British Army.
The system description includes qualitative and quantitative information about physical processes in the system, the time scales of interest, and the geometry and physical configuration of the system. The system description provides key information for the risk calculation component of the risk assessment, including the release form, the temporal character of the releases, transport mechanisms and transport media, biota at the site, land-use characteristics, human activities in the vicinity, and toxicological characteristics of the contaminants of concern. From this information the analyst can formulate a conceptual model for each step of the risk calculation. For example, a dose reconstruction (CDC 2005) was performed for the Savannah River Site, a DOE facility used to manufacture material for nuclear weapons. Although several instances of groundwater contamination on the site had been documented, the dose reconstruction did not consider radionuclide migration by the groundwater...
In the 1950's, a number of forces came into play that led to the reemer-gence of cognitive psychology in the United States. First, during World War II, considerable research had been devoted to human-factors issues such as human skills and performance within, for example, the confines of a tank or cockpit. After the war, researchers showed continued interest in human attention, perception, decision making, and so on, and they were influenced by a branch of communication science, known as information theory, that dealt abstractly with questions of information processing. The integration of these two topics resulted eventually in the modern information-processing model, mentioned above.
Informed consent was first formulated under international law through the Declaration of Helsinki, and in response to the atrocities of the Second World War. The principles of informed consent are under continuous review and discussion (e.g. Marsh, 1990). This is to be expected when reasonable standards of informed consent are dependent not only upon the design of a particular study, but also on environmental factors, the current state of medicine, and particular local characteristics of clinical trials populations, all of which are themselves continuously changing.
Even though most people are firmly convinced that smallpox has been eradicated, stocks of vaccine are still being held. This is a wise precaution in support of the policy of suspending routine vaccination. Furthermore, there is some concern that because populations are now not immunized, the variola virus may be a tempting candidate for biological warfare.
The development of leishmaniasis depends on a competent sand fly vector, an appropriate mammalian reservoir(s) and a susceptible human host. A dramatic reduction in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis occurred in India and other areas following the introduction of residual DDT spraying for malaria control after World War II. Unfortunately, epidemics of visceral leishmania-sis occurred when spraying was discontinued. Although residual insecticides are still useful on a limited scale where peridomestic transmission occurs, their application is impractical in rural areas where leishmaniasis is a zoonosis. It is further limited by cost, the development of
After World War II, Japanese intake of fats and oils increased gradually and so did blood TC values. In the typical town of Hisayama, CHD mortality was relatively unchanged, but the mortality from ischemic stroke actually decreased (fig. 43, 44). The PDAY study emphasizes the importance of starting prevention from younger ages, but relative contributions and causal relation
After the United States entered World War II in December 1941, psychologists as well as scholars in other fields were sought out by government officials to help solve problems related to the war effort, and to come up with better methods of measuring and analyzing results. Psychologists in particular were consulted about such questions as maintaining morale on the home front, improving leadership training in the military, and solving human relations issues in offices and factories in order to boost production. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) contacted Lewin and his group at Iowa to review research proposals and provide feedback on general ONR policy. In addition, Lewin advised the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) on psychological warfare. As of the 1980s, some of his contributions in this area were still considered classified information.
In 1944, World War II was in full swing. Airplanes and bombs were common during this time, but there were no missile guidance systems yet available. Anxious to help, Skinner sought funding for a top-secret project to train pigeons to guide bombs to their target. He knew from working with animals in the lab that pigeons could be quickly trained to perform a desired task. Working intently, he trained pigeons to repeatedly peck a point of contact inside the missile that would in effect hold the missile on its intended trajectory toward the target. The pigeons pecked reliably, even when falling rapidly and working with warlike noise all around them. But, Project Pigeon, as it was called, was eventually discontinued because a new invention, radar, proved to be far more useful. Though Skinner was disappointed at the discontinuation of his experiment, it did strengthen his determination to continue using pigeons in future experiments
Starting from the work of Janet and Freud and early descriptions of irritable heart syndrome and shell shock among soldiers of the American Civil War and World War I 13,14 , research on high-impact events, such as disasters and life-threatening occurrences, and more ordinary life events has been under way for at least a century. Since World War II, a number of studies have assessed the emotional consequences of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes, and more recently technological and human-made catastrophes, such as the nuclear power plant accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) in the USA and Chernobyl in the Ukraine 15-17 , the Nazi Holocaust 18, 19 , and the Cambodian massacre 20 .
Allport assisted the American Psychological Association in the late 1930s and throughout the Second World War as head of an Emergency Committee working with European refugee-scholars. He was President of the American Psychological Association in 1939, and in 1964 received the APA's Distinguished Scientific Contribution to Psychology award.
America's entry into World War I was a turning point, not only for the nation, but also for psychology. In The Mismeasure of Man, American paleontologist and author Stephen Jay Gould noted that Yerkes modern group of 53 students at Harvard University. He stuck to Yerkes's procedure as closely as possible. These students had a couple of advantages over the World War I recruits, however They knew what was happening, and they did not have the pressure of real-life consequences riding on their results. Nevertheless, more than 10 of students from one of the world's leading universities scored just a C, meaning they would have been seen as mentally fit for no higher a rank than private. For actual World War I soldiers, scores on both the Alpha and Beta tests did tend to agree overall with officers' ratings of their men's intelligence. There was also a lower but still moderate association between test scores and actual military performance. What is true for a whole group of men, however, is...
Horney and Fromm's affair had been at its height during the 1930s. They lived well and seemed to be good for each other. Their love affair was far more than physical attraction. It was a meeting of the minds, a sharing of Horney's view of psychoanalysis and Fromm's of both sociology and psychotherapy that was mutually beneficial. Despite Fromm's socialist views, they hosted lavish parties replete with the finest gourmet dining, roulette parties, or even being serenaded by Erich Fromm and Hasidic choruses. These affairs were attended by most of the luminaries of the time. Among the regular attendees were Karl Menninger, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Margaret Mead. Up until the onset of World War II, Horney and Fromm took frequent vacations to France and Switzerland. Karen Horney had arrived. Thanks to her psychoanalytic practice, her books, and her lectures, money was no longer a problem. She enjoyed the good life, and bought several homes, including a vacation home at Croton-on-Hudson....
The atomic bombs that exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in mainly neutron and gamma irradiation in 1945 and the subsequent testing of nuclear weapons, exposing unprotected populations from radiation and fallout, afforded the opportunity to study the issue of ionizing radiation and thyroid cancer. Sampson et al. 32 examined the thyroid glands at autopsy of 3067 Japanese survivors who had lived in proximity to the atomic detonations. They discovered 536 thyroid carcinomas, a combined incidence rate of 17.5 for both men and women. Ninety-seven percent of the tumors were PMCTs although tumors as large as 1.5 cm were included in the series. Thompson et al. 33
Alfred Binet may have invented intelligence testing, but the distinction of developing the most popular IQ test used today goes to David Wechsler. Wechsler was born in Romania in 1896. He moved with his family to the United States when he was six years old. By the time the United States entered World War I, Wechsler was a young graduate student studying psychology at Columbia University. At the start of the war, Wechsler served for a time as a volunteer scorer of the Army Alpha test. Once he became a junior officer, he was assigned to give the Stanford-Binet test to recruits who had been referred for extra testing. This experience gave Wechsler a firsthand glimpse of the strengths and weaknesses of the leading intelligence tests of the day. In particular, he became aware that the Stanford-Binet test did not always work well for assessing intelligence in adults.
He would stay at Fort Hays for 12 years, until the beginning of World War II. As Fransella noted, Faced with a sea of human suffering aggravated by bank foreclosures and economic hardship, Kelly could no longer find any purpose except for the practical. He decided to put his efforts toward school children, whom he saw as needing his services. To that purpose he founded a clinic for diagnosing psychological problems and offering remedial services. The clinic traveled During the last couple of years before America entered World War II, Kelly was in charge of a flight-training program at Fort Hays for local civilian pilots. In 1943 he was commissioned in the Naval Reserve and spent some of the war years serving as a Navy aviation psychologist. Kelly moved to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery of the Navy in Washington, where he was involved in research on instrument panel design and other problems of applied and clinical psychology. In 1945 he was appointed Associate
A vast array of intelligence, aptitude, and personality tests emerged, particularly after World War II, and Anastasi was often called to evaluate them. By the end of the 1950s, when she spoke, the psychological and academic worlds listened. In the late 1960s when proponents of so-called culturally fair testing came forth, Anastasi was there to argue that no totally unbiased tests existed. She usually represented the voice of caution when the professional community was deciding such matters too hastily. Anastasi provided a grounding of lofty philosophical and psychological theories with real-world situations that required practical problem-solving.
Schistosomes have long been suspected to stunt the growth of growing children. Classic studies performed by Stephenson (1993) reported an effect on skin-fold thickness following infection with S. haematobium and S. mansoni. Historically, S. japonicum had been associated with a condition in China described as 'schistosomal dwarfism' (McGarvey et al., 1993). In addition, military recruits during World War II in Japan, from the two prefectures endemic for Schistosoma japonicum, were known to be significantly shorter than those from non-endemic areas. Population-based studies have now clearly demonstrated an effect of schistosome infection on child growth (McGarvey et al., 1993, 1996 Stephenson, 1993). The effect appears maximal during the adolescent growth spurt and is seen predominantly in populations with marginal nutritional status. Catch-up growth is observed, but can be retarded by reinfections (Olveda et al., 1996 Olds iet al., 1996).
Beginning with the post-World War II construction boom the U.S. consumption of all materials including plastics has significantly grown in volume. Data from the U.S. Geological Survey indicates an increasing trend for materials in the United States (and in the world as a whole) during 1970-1995. The oil crisis in mid-1970s and the economic recession in early 1980s had little effect on the patterns of consumption. Intensity of material use in the United States in the past decade shows that plastics use grew at a relatively faster rate compared to that of conventional materials. Figure 1.4 shows the trends in the annual U.S. consumption of key materials divided by the gross domestic product (GDP) in constant 1987 dollars (and normalized for the base year 1940). While conventional materials used in infrastructure improvement, such as steel, copper, lead, and lumber, gradually became relatively less important to the economy, the use of light-weight materials such as aluminum and plastics...
In 1944, near the end of the Second World War, Skinner and Yvonne decided to have a second child. Knowing that Yvonne found the first two years of caregiving for a child arduous, Skinner suggested they simplify the care of the baby. This suggestion evolved into an invention that would later become known as the baby box, or baby tender, as Skinner called it. The baby box was intended to be a superior alternative for the traditional baby crib. Skinner's baby box consisted of a thermostatically controlled enclosed crib with safety glass on the front and a stretched-canvas floor. It provided restraint and protection for the infant while also allowing great freedom of movement for the child. This baby box would be the sleeping space for their second daughter, Deborah, for the next two-and-a-half years. Skinner reported his invention and its use with his daughter in an article he submitted to Ladies Home Journal during that time period. As a result of this exposure, hundreds of other babies...
Skinner analyzed behavior by examining the antecedents and consequences which control any specific class of responses in the individual organism. From this view, he elaborated a psychology that encompassed all aspects of animal and human behavior, including language. By the late 1970's, historians of psychology ranked Skinner's work as the second most significant development in psychology since World War II the general growth of the field was ranked first. Three journals arose to publish work in the Skinnerian tradition Journal ofthe Experimental Analysis ofBehavior, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, and Behaviorism. Moreover, an international orga
Much early research on affiliation and friendship developed from an interest in social groups. After World War II, social scientists were interested in identifying the attitudes and processes that unify people and motivate their allegiances. Social comparison theory helps to explain a broad range of behavior, including friendship choices, group membership, and proselytizing. Festinger suggested that group membership is helpful when one's beliefs have been challenged or disproved. Like-minded fellow members will be equally motivated to rationalize the challenge. In their 1956 book When Prophecy Fails, Festinger, Henry Riecken, and Schachter document the experience of two groups of contemporary persons who had attested a belief that the world would end in a disastrous flood. One group was able to gather and meet to await the end, while the other individuals, mostly college students,
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