Get Paid to Write at Home
According to the writer and painter, Henry Millera, At eighty I believe I am a far more cheerful person than I was at twenty or thirty. I most definitely would not want to be a teenager again. Youth may be glorious, but it is also painful to endure. Moreover, what is called youth is not youth it is rather something like premature old age .
Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, edited by James Strachey. Vol. 10. London Hogarth Press, 1955. Originally published in 1909, this is Freud's description of the case of Little Hans, the most famous patient in the history ofanxiety disorders. Freud is an excellent writer, and he presents many vivid details in this case history, making it interesting to read.
Beck's interest in the humanities as an undergraduate led him to situate his approach to psychotherapy within the mainstream of Western philosophy, which has traditionally emphasized the role of human reason as the guide or governor of the emotions. He has explicitly mentioned his indebtedness to Greek and Roman Stoicism, the critical idealism of Immanuel Kant (17241804), and the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). Stoicism numbered among its adherents such writers as Zeno of Citium (333-264 b.c.), Cicero (106-46 b.c.), Seneca (3 b.c.-65 a.d.), Epictetus (55-135 a.d.), and the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (121-180 a.d.). One of Epictetus's sayings is People are disturbed not by things but by the view which they take of them. Similarly, Marcus Aurelius wrote in his
Black pride and black literary voices were strong influences in the Harlem of Clark's boyhood. It was a time of tremendous creativity and growth of social and political movements. Harlem nurtured black intellectuals such as Arthur Schomburg, curator of the 135th Street Branch of the New York Public Library, a center of intellectual and cultural activity in Harlem, and home to his extensive collection of black literature and historical documents. Black poets and writers including Countee Cullen, who taught at Kenneth Clark's junior high school Langston Hughes, Harlem's Poet Laureate and Zora Neale Hurston were among the prominent cultural lights of Harlem during Kenneth Clark's childhood years.
Some writers assume that improving quality costs more. Some health economists even speak of an iron triangle of access, cost, and quality. According to the iron triangle metaphor, quality cannot be increased without corresponding decreases in access to care or increases in cost of care, or both.
Captain Danielsen, for all the negatives attributed to him, is also described as having brought young Karen on three of his voyages, something rarely done by sea captains in the late 1800s. He also reportedly brought her presents from all over the world. Those trips with her father remained some of Karen's better childhood memories. Even as an adult, she still remembered hearing the Norwegian sailors read aloud on these journeys. In her writings and lectures, she quoted passages from Kierkegaard and other Norwegian writers that they had read. Despite the sea voyages and the gifts, Karen viewed her father as a hypocrite fixated on religion, and invariably sided with her mother in the frequent battles that disrupted
Many of Jung's writings assume that all his educated patients had been alienated from traditional Christian or Jewish faith and practice. So much of what Christian symbolism taught has gone by the board for large numbers of people, without their ever having understood what they have lost. At the same time, Jung felt that these same patients were disturbed, if only on the unconscious level, by their loss of faith. Crises of religious faith were a major issue for numerous artists, writers, and intellectuals in the late nineteenth century. The autobiographical writings of people as otherwise different as George Eliot, Cardinal Newman, Herman Melville, and Clara Barton indicate that the loss or alteration of religious belief marked a significant turning point in their lives. People in this period dealt with their religious crises in different ways. Some adopted science or the scientific method as their central value. Freud took this particular route, regarding religion as no more than a...
Accordingly skeptical of the results. For example, in reference to the Louisiana study mentioned above, Rucker and Morse advised, Readers should proceed cautiously before accepting research sponsored or disseminated by interested parties. 40 Many writers have criticized the Horn et al.29 study in particular for its funding source and for details of study design and method.
It is suggested that the report is easier to follow if it is subsectioned what is presented below is the minimum that would be normally used. Do remember that in a lengthy report it is often useful to subsection further within the broad sections, both to enable the reader to appreciate better the structure of your report and to help you, as the writer, to produce a It is often very useful to subsection this part of the report, especially if the section is a long one. If this is done, then start with a brief outline of the structure of your introduction this will aid both the reader and the writer to follow better the developing thesis of this portion of your write-up.
Often the focus of the debate between Wundt and James centers on the structuralist approach of Wundt compared to the functionalism of James. A writer noted that the two schools of thought were actually more similar to each other than to the rest of mainstream psychology. Both, he pointed out, were engaged in the principle of free will and opposed to the materialistic philosophy. Even their ideas of what made psychology worth studying, as well as the nature of its essence, did not differ much. In comparing their ideas, it is helpful to consider the following points made by that writer. For Wundt
Self-actualization Once the physiological, safety, love, and esteem needs have been basically satisfied, the person tends to move into a new, higher level of motivation marked by the need for self-actualization. Maslow defined this need as the need to fulfill one's potential, to be what one can be. For example, a writer might experience the need for self-actualization as a motivation to create poetry, while a musician might experience it as a motivation to make music. Although he used artistic endeavors as examples, Maslow was quick to point out that self-actualization did not necessarily involve artistic creativity. He noted that an artist might create art based solely on inborn talent, without necessarily having satisfied all of his or her basic needs.
Not only in hygiene but in the field of food preservation were practical procedures discovered. Thus tribes which had not progressed beyond the status of hunter-gatherers discovered that meat and fish could be preserved by drying, salting or mixing with natural spices. As the great civilizations of the Mediterranean and Near and Middle East receded, so arose the European high cultures and, whether through reading or independent discovery, concepts of empirical hygiene were also developed. There was, of course, a continuum of contact between Europe and the Middle and Near East through the Arab and Ottoman incursions into Europe, but it is difficult to find early European writers acknowledging the heritage of these empires.
In 1994, writer Richard Noll published a book entitled The Jung Cult, in which he described Jung as a pseudo-charismatic figure who established a secret church with himself as chief priest. In 1998, Peter Kramer, the psychiatrist-author of Listening to Prozac, said in an interview that Jung was very comfortable in the role of an idol, even as a secular religious leader. Jung was much more invested in his own omniscience than Freud. Kramer went on to say that people in the early years of the twentieth century were much more likely to attribute unusual mental powers to intellectual pioneers than they are now, and they were more likely to believe that such geniuses were entitled to special privileges.
More than a decade prior to his selection as an expert witness in the Supreme Court case outlawing school segregation, Clark worked with Gunnar Myrdal, the Swedish economist commissioned in 1938 by the Carnegie Corporation to direct a two-year study of the condition of African Americans. Myrdal employed 48 writers and researchers including Ralph Bunche and Kenneth B. Clark. The resulting book, An American Dilemma, published in 1944, became a classic in the study of American racism and was included in the social science research supporting public school integration. Clark agreed with Myrdal about the gulf between the American ideals of democracy and brotherhood on the one hand, and the existence of racial prejudice, discrimination, and segregation on the other.
Skinner probably first read some of Watson's work in the summer of 1926, when he was 22 years old, but it wasn't until the spring of 1928 that Skinner took the writings of Watson more seriously. Years later, when Skinner had established himself as an independent thinker and writer on radical behaviorism, he said that Watson had brought the promise of By the 1920s, the field of psychology had already captured the public's attention. Given Watson's charisma, personal charm, persuasiveness, and message of hope, Americans were enthralled by what one writer called an outbreak of psychology. Much of the public was convinced that psychology provided a path to health, happiness, and prosperity. Psychological advice columns sprouted up in the pages of the daily newspapers. Watson's behaviorism was the first stage in the evolution of the behavioral school of thought. The second stage, sometimes referred to as neobehav-iorism, can be dated from about 1930 to about 1960 and includes the work of...
These points are particularly salient when it comes to the topic of trauma and posttraumatic reactions. Why Trauma invokes powerful images, thoughts, and feelings. It is a concrete and heavy concept because it is far too real for so many people. Because of this, each of us shows up to the trauma epistemology and ontology game with a lot of conceptual baggage. The philosophy of Edmund Husserl held that each of us possesses conceptual frames or brackets by which we organize and understand the world around us. He supported exploring these brackets in order to understand where our ideas about the world come from. This process was intended to address bias and misconception. I won't be asking you to discard your baggage or explore your frames necessarily, but simply to be aware. Self-awareness in the learning process is a powerful ally. As a therapist working with PTSD patients, I have seen my own conceptual baggage interfere with the listening and empathy process. As a writer, I am aware...
It may appear that the relationship between skin disease and psychological or neurotic influences has been established for many years (Whitlock, 1976). However, the apparent imaginative leap between skin and psyche in works by early writers (Cullen, 1784 Wilson, 1867) who describe nervous influences on skin function mean just that and not a later interpretation that this means a psychological component (Hunter & MacAlpine, 1963). The term neurosis retained its essential meaning of a disordered nerve function without a structural pathology until 100 years later when the prefix 'psycho' was added for nervous diseases caused psychologically.
We are able to recognize a good experimental report or journal paper in large part owing to its adherence to a particular genre of writing. Psychologists are trained to conform to the conventions of quantitative research, and these conventions stipulate rules that must be followed at all levels of the report, from the use of introduction, method, results and discussion sections to the use of the third person throughout. Similarly (as we point out in Chapter 10), with qualitative research, the use or misuse of terminology will commend or mar the study. It would be quite wrong, for example, for a qualitative researcher to refer to herself as the 'experimenter' or her interviewees or co-researchers as 'subjects'. In some cases the use of the term 'data' to refer to the material that has been selected for analysis will be acceptable, or writers may even feel that they are right to say that they have 'discovered* something but these are borderline concepts that evoke the quantitative world...
The dictionary tells us that rabies is derived from the Latin rabere, to rage or to rave, as is the corresponding adjective rabid rabere possibly may have earlier origins in the Sanskrit rabhas, for violence. The Greeks adopted their own word, lyssa, meaning madness, for rabies this in turn is still reflected in English in lyssophobia, described in the Oxford English Dictionary as a morbid dread of hydrophobia, the symptoms of which sometimes simulate those of the actual disease. Not surprisingly, then, it is the image of the mad dog that has for centuries past come to symbolize humankind's fear of the disease as expressed by writers, legislators, and medical practitioners and philosophers (Fig. 1). Mad or vicious dogs began to appear in legal documents in Mesopotamia as early as 2300 B.C., when owners of such animals were held responsible for any deaths resulting from their bites If a dog is mad, and if the authorities have made its owner aware of this fact if then the latter does...
Avedis Donabedian, perhaps the most famous American writer on health care quality, has proposed three evaluable and interrelated components of quality structure, process, and outcome.10,11 Structure concerns the type, number, and characteristics of resources. It includes such things as physical facilities, written policies and procedures, and qualifications of staff. Process concerns how those resources are actually used to provide or support patient care, i.e., the activities of governance, management, and clinical and support personnel. Process refers to what actually happened. Outcome concerns the results of process, occurring within structure. Donabedian defines outcome as a change in health status attributable to health care (i.e., process carried out within a structure).
Jean's mother was a strict Calvinist, adhering to a system of biblical interpretation focused on the supreme sovereignty of God and the fallen nature of humans. She was politically active and concerned with the social causes of the day. By some accounts Rebecca Piaget was a troubled woman, seriously challenged with mental illness. She encouraged her son to attend religious instruction, but young Piaget soon lost interest in what he considered childish religious arguments. Piaget began his study of various philosophies in an effort to find his way through the inconsistencies he perceived between the religious instruction he received at church and his own observations of the natural world. At the suggestion of his godfather, the Swiss scholar Samuel Cornut, Piaget began his study of philosophy. He was especially touched by the French writer Henri Bergson's 1907 book, Creative Evolution. Piaget said the book stirred him almost to ecstasy.
Western Behavioral Sciences Institute and founded the Center for Studies of the Person. Despite the tremendous exposure to people the world over that Rogers had enjoyed for decades, he remained basically a rather shy man. His 1970 book, On Encounter Groups, was judged by its publisher Harper and Row to have mass-marketing appeal. The book company wanted to set up a television interview for him, but Rogers adamantly refused. But one show would lead to another an incredulous publishing executive argued. That's what I'm afraid of, Rogers is said to have replied. He lived in California, continuing to see clients in his flourishing practice and conduct scientific studies at La Jolla. Rogers remained a frequent lecturer and prolific writer. During the last two decades of his life, between 1964 and 1987, Rogers wrote and published over 120 articles, including many that were published posthumously. In addition, Carl Rogers completed his last two books, A Way of Being and Freedom to Learn for...
Family lived in a large frame house alongside the campus, and they exposed Skinner to a world of art and culture he had previously not known. The Saunders' home was full of books, pictures, sculpture, musical instruments, and huge bouquets of peonies in season. His visits to the Saunders' home exposed him to writers, musicians, and artists. It would be commonplace during his visits to hear beautiful music playing in the background composed by Schubert or Beethoven, or to hear poetry recited. According to Skinner, Percy and Louise Saunders made an art of living, something I had not known was possible.
As a child, Skinner had an inclination to become a writer. He had used an old typewriter to compose poems and stories. He even started a novel or two. In high school he worked for the local newspaper, called the Transcript. In the morning before school he would crib national and international news from the Binghamton, New York, papers that came in on the morning train. The summer before his senior year he attended the Middlebury School of English at Breadloaf, Vermont. He took a course with Sidney Cox, who one day invited him to have lunch with the poet Robert Frost. During lunch, Frost asked Skinner to send him some of his work, which he did three short stories. Frost responded with encouragement to continue writing, and it was at this point that Skinner made a definite decision that he would be a writer. Unfortunately, Skinner's decision to become a writer was not supported by his father. William, from the time his son was born, had hoped his eldest son would follow in his footsteps...
Example The automatic behaviors can be witnessed in considering the skills a person possesses when heading into the study of advanced math. Had the student not learned the basic rules of algebra so that its operations were automatic, the more complicated steps of higher mathematics would be virtually impossible. The same is true in writing and forming grammatical sentences. The mechanical aspect of language becomes so automatic that the writer can simply focus on content rather than the process just as in conversations, when a person does not have to stop and focus on each step of the process, but rather only on what is being said. Still another example of this concept is the pianist who has developed the skill of playing well enough to talk or sing simultaneously, focusing on that behavior rather than the mechanics of playing. People experience such behavior daily even as they lock their houses when they leave, for instance, or do not stop to think how to open their garage doors,...
Alzheimer's disease, and that is just the beginning. Why are these groups so popular Some writers believe that Americans have turned away from the rugged individualism that has characterized the national psyche in the past and are searching for meaning in groups to replace the extended families found in other societies. However, this does not explain why support groups are also popular in other parts of the world. The answer probably lies in the characteristics of groups.
In this chapter we are concerned with a form of analysis that addresses the ways in which language is so structured as to produce sets of meanings, discourses, that operate independently of the intentions of speakers, or writers. Discourse analysis treats the social world as a text, or rather as a system of texts which can be systematically 'read' by a researcher to lay open the psychological processes that lie within them, processes that the discipline of psychology usually attributes to a machinery inside the individual's head. Most texts convey assumptions about the nature of individual psychology. In the example we have chosen you will see that, despite first appearances, the text is closely linked to the concerns of the discipline. The debates that prompted the turn to language were crucial for the development of qualitative research in psychology, for they permitted psychologists to break from a positivist fetish for figures to an exploration of meaning. As we pointed out in...
Karen Danley, Ph.D., was one of the founding members of the Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation at Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Boston University. Focusing on vocational rehabilitation, Dr. Danley was largely responsible for the development of the Choose-Get-Keep model of supported employment, which set the tone and standard for this service for PsyR and ultimately the entire field of supported employment. As the first director of Career Achievement Services, she established many new program initiatives for the Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation as well as many innovations for the field. An experienced and successful grant writer, Dr. Danley's efforts helped to fund much of the important research and training carried out at the center. Her work included outreach to the inner-city youth of Boston who experience serious mental illness and using the Choose-Get-Keep strategy with veterans who have psychiatric disabilities.
Discussion with participants and colleagues will help to gain a broader picture, but reflexive writers must be aware of their limitations. Thus you should always be questioning in a disciplined manner what it is that you have done, asking yourself whether your choice of methods was appropriate, what alternatives could have been utilized, what your impact on the setting, situation, participants, results, etc. is likely to be, what alternative interpretations might be put forward (as Chapter 2 suggests, for instance, when considering interpretations of observations). Sometimes, keeping a diary as your research progresses is very useful here (as is noted in Chapter 9). Thus, as well as thinking carefully about your own particular study (and yourself), you also need to think about more macro issues, which include research methodology and questioning psychology itself (what Wilkinson 1988 calls 'disciplinary reflexivity'). Power relationships are likely to be particularly important, and...
Albert Ellis (1913- ) is the founder of rationalemotive behavior therapy, or REBT. He did not set out to become a therapist, but majored in business at the City University of New York. Ellis graduated from CUNY in 1934, in the midst of the Great Depression. While supporting himself by managing a gift and novelty firm, Ellis hoped to become a great writer but had little success in publishing his short stories and plays. He did discover, however, from conversations with friends that he had a flair for counseling. He entered the graduate program in clinical psychology at Columbia, earning his doctorate in 1947.
Horney wrote extensively, disputing Freud's assumption that the Oedipus complex is a purely biological phenomenon. In her 1937 book The Neurotic Personality of Our Time, she cites several other analysts and writers of her time Bronislaw Malinowski, Felix Boehm, Erich Fromm, and Wilhelm Reich as asserting that this force is culturally driven, not biological. She went on to note that in her experience she knew of no case where it was not neurotic parents who by terror and tenderness forced the child into these passionate attachments, with all the implications of possessiveness and jealousy described by Freud.
In 1905 she became the first woman president of the American Psychological Association, and in 1918, the first woman president of the American Philosophical Association. She taught at Wellesley until 1927, when she retired. She was a prolific writer, advocating self-based psychology. She created a method of improving memory called The Right Associates Method, and wrote extensively on a variety of subjects, including dream research, memorization, animal consciousness, and many others. She was the author of one of the earliest textbooks used in teaching psychology, Introduction to Psychology. She never married, and died in 1930 of cancer.
Notes need to be taken at the time, and subsequently systematically and quickly written up. They are usually useful in addition to any more formal recording (such as a videotape, which may miss out crucial material). Such notes should include reflections, personal feelings, hunches, guesses and speculations as well as the observations themselves and anything else observed (and these different aspects should be clearly differentiated). Descriptions should be reasonably full, allowing the writer to remember the observation from the account several months later, and the reader should be able to visualize it reasonably accurately. It is often useful to take two copies of such notes, to allow one to be cut up, to simplify any subsequent analysis. Writing up is likely to take several drafts.
As a group, the Termites have fared relatively well. Although no world-class geniuses emerged from the group, some members achieved success and even a measure of fame as adults. For example, Jess Oppenheimer became the creator, producer, and head writer of I Love Lucy, one of the best-loved television shows of all time. Ancel Keys discovered the link between cholesterol and heart disease. Others in the group included Norris Bradbury, former director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Shelley Smith Mydans, a one-time journalist for Life magazine. Yet none of the Termites ever won a Nobel or Pulitzer Prize. It is an interesting footnote that two of children who were tested for the study but whose IQs failed to make the cut did go on to win the Nobel Prize in Physics William Shockley in 1956 and Luis Alvarez in 1968. Of course, not all of Terman's Termites achieved happiness and success as adults. For example, the study included two half-sisters raised by the same mother, both of...
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